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Table 3 Chronic conditions associated with severe imported falciparum malaria in the study population

From: Hypertension is associated with an increased risk for severe imported falciparum malaria: a tertiary care hospital based observational study from Berlin, Germany

Chronic co-morbidityNo. (%) of patientsP valueaOR (95% CI)
Total (n = 536)Non severe malaria (n = 468)Severe malaria (n = 68)UnadjustedbAdjustedc
No. of co-morbidities
 0441 (82.3)394 (84.2)47 (69.1)< 0.0021 (Ref) 
 161 (11.4)50 (10.7)11 (16.2)0.1831.844 (0.898–3.787) 
 229 (5.4)20 (4.3)9 (13.2)0.0023.772 (1.624–8.765) 
 35 (0.9)4 (0.9)1 (1.5)0.6252.096 (0.229–19.15) 
Seriousness of underlying disorders (CA-CCI)
≥ 2110 (20.5)85 (18.2)25 (36.8)< 0.0012.83 (1.644–4.871) 
Nutritional status
 BMI, median (range)24.5 (18.0–39.2)24.6 (18.0–39.2)24.4 (18.0–34.9)0.388  
 Obesityd24 (9.8)19 (9.9)5 (9.4)0.9201.054 (0.374–2.970) 
Individual diseases
 Cardiovascular disease12 (2.2)5 (1.1)7 (10.3)< 0.0018.961 (2.656–30.234)8.197 (2.300–29.216)
 Hypertension43 (9.2)30 (6.4)13 (19.1)< 0.0014.447 (2.233 -8.857)3.061 (1.335–7.021)
 Pulmonary disease13 (2.4)12 (2.6)1 (1.5)0.5671.763 (0.226–13.779) 
 History of or active smoking31 (5.8)24 (5.1)7 (10.3)0.0882.123 (0.878–5.136) 
 Endocrine/metabolic disordere31 (5.8)26 (5.6)5 (7.4)0.5531.715 (0.677–4.345) 
 Diabetes mellitus16 (3.0)14 (3.0)2 (2.9)0.9821.615 (0.448–5.822) 
 Dyslipidaemia6 (1.1)3 (0.6)3 (4.4)0.0067.154 (1.414–36.193)6.082 (1.125–32.876)
 Metabolic syndromef5 (0.9)3 (0.6)2 (2.9)0.0654.697 (0.770–28.634) 
 Chronic infectious diseaseg31 (5.8)23 (4.9)8 (11.8)0.0242.123 (0.878–5.136) 
 HIV infection15 (2.8)10 (2.1)5 (7.4)0.0152.597 (0.803–8.399) 
 Chronic hepatitis12 (2.2)9 (1.9)3 (4.4)0.1951.94 (0.51–7.33) 
 Malignancy9 (1.7)6 (1.3)3 (4.4)0.0423.554 (0.868–14.557) 
 Chronic renal disease10 (1.9)9 (1.9)1 (1.5)0.7971.314 (0.164–10.535) 
 Alcoholism4 (0.7)1 (0.2)3 (4.4)< 0.00121.554 (2.209–210.303)19.217 (1.848–199.870)
 Gastrointestinal disorder4 (0.7)3 (0.6)1 (1.5)0.4582.313 (0.237–22.564) 
 Autoimmune/rheumatoloic disorder4 (0.7)3 (0.6)1 (1.5)0.4582.313 (0.237–22.564) 
 Neurologic disorder2 (0.4)2 (0.4) 
  1. CA-CCI age-adjusted Charleson co-morbidity index, CI confidence interval, HIV human immunodeficiency virus, OR odds ratio
  2. aEstimated by Chi square test
  3. bOdds ratios (OR) determined by univariate logistic regression
  4. cAdjusted odds ratios (OR) were determined in separate multivariable models including the individual diagnoses together with age (continuous), origin from endemic region, and lack of previous malaria episodes as potential confounders
  5. dObesity: BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. A BMI was available for 245 cases, 192 with non-severe and 53 with severe malaria
  6. eEndocrine/metabolic disorded included diabetes, dyslipidaemia, hypo- and hyperthyroidism, and hyperuricaemia/gout
  7. fMetabolic syndrome: obesity together with at least one of the following: hypertension, diabetes, or dyslipidaemia
  8. gChronic infectious disease included infections with HIV, hepatitis B and C, Strongyloides stercoralis, and filarial parasites