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Table 3 Proportion of isolates with deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes among false negative cases using PfHRP2-based RDTs

From: Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

Authors Countries Number of P. falciparum samples positive with reference method but negative with PfHRP-based RDTa Number of isolates with deletions in pfhrp2 gene (%) Number of isolates with deletions in pfhrp3 gene (%)
Koita et al. [26]b Mali 22 10 (45.5%) NA
Wurtz et al. [27]b Senegal 7 3 (42.9%) 6 (85.8%)
Amoah et al. [28] Ghana 38 6 (15.8%) NA
Beshir et al. [29] Kenya NA NA NA
Gupta et al. [30] Mozambique 69 1 (1.4%) 0 (0.0%)
Kozycki et al. [31] Rwanda 140 32 (22.9%) NA
Menegon et al. [32] Eritrea NA NA NA
Parr et al. [33] Democratic Republic of the Congo 783 149 (19.0%) NA
Berhane et al. [35] Eritrea 31 31 (100%) NA
Nderu et al. [36]b Kenya 2 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Ranadive et al. [34]b Swaziland 9 0 (0%) 0 (0%)
Funwei et al. [38] Nigeria 31 7 (22.6%) NA
Kobayashi et al. [39] Zambia 36 3 (8.3%) NA
Kumar et al. [42]b India 2 2 (100%) 2 (100%)
Bharti et al. [43] India 50 36 (72.0%) 27 (54.0%)
Pati et al. [44] India 58 38 (65.5%) 24 (41.38%)
  1. PfHRP: Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein; NA: not applicable; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; pLDH: lactate dehydrogenase; RDT: rapid diagnostic test
  2. aReference method was microscopy, PCR or pLDH RDT
  3. bThese studies were excluded from the meta-analysis of percentage of false negative samples in which deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes were found due to small sample size