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Table 3 Proportion of isolates with deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes among false negative cases using PfHRP2-based RDTs

From: Prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum field isolates with deletions in histidine-rich protein 2 and 3 genes in context with sub-Saharan Africa and India: a systematic review and meta-analysis

AuthorsCountriesNumber of P. falciparum samples positive with reference method but negative with PfHRP-based RDTaNumber of isolates with deletions in pfhrp2 gene (%)Number of isolates with deletions in pfhrp3 gene (%)
Koita et al. [26]bMali2210 (45.5%)NA
Wurtz et al. [27]bSenegal73 (42.9%)6 (85.8%)
Amoah et al. [28]Ghana386 (15.8%)NA
Beshir et al. [29]KenyaNANANA
Gupta et al. [30]Mozambique691 (1.4%)0 (0.0%)
Kozycki et al. [31]Rwanda14032 (22.9%)NA
Menegon et al. [32]EritreaNANANA
Parr et al. [33]Democratic Republic of the Congo783149 (19.0%)NA
Berhane et al. [35]Eritrea3131 (100%)NA
Nderu et al. [36]bKenya20 (0%)0 (0%)
Ranadive et al. [34]bSwaziland90 (0%)0 (0%)
Funwei et al. [38]Nigeria317 (22.6%)NA
Kobayashi et al. [39]Zambia363 (8.3%)NA
Kumar et al. [42]bIndia22 (100%)2 (100%)
Bharti et al. [43]India5036 (72.0%)27 (54.0%)
Pati et al. [44]India5838 (65.5%)24 (41.38%)
  1. PfHRP: Plasmodium falciparum histidine-rich protein; NA: not applicable; PCR: polymerase chain reaction; pLDH: lactate dehydrogenase; RDT: rapid diagnostic test
  2. aReference method was microscopy, PCR or pLDH RDT
  3. bThese studies were excluded from the meta-analysis of percentage of false negative samples in which deletions in pfhrp2/3 genes were found due to small sample size