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Table 1 The summary of experimental design on WHO and I-ACT bioassays

From: Long-lasting insecticidal nets retain bio-efficacy after 5 years of storage: implications for malaria control programmes

ParticularWHO cone testWHO tunnel testIfakara Ambient Chamber test (I-ACT)
Mosquitoes exposed80 per net100 per net piece60 (30 per strain) per net
Exposure time3 min12 h9 h
Mosquito holding conditions27 °C ± 5 °C
40–100% RH
27 °C ± 5 °C
40–100% RH
27 °C ± 5 °C
40–100% RH
Mosquito status3–5 day old female, sugar-fed, nulliparous5–8 day old female, sugar-starved, nulliparous5–8 day old female, sugar-starved, nulliparous
BaitNoneRabbitHuman
Outcome measures% KD60 (uncoordnated movement or unable to move or body impairement  or rapid fall after take off by the mosquito after one hour (60mins))
% 24-h mortality
% Feeding inhibition
% 24-h mortality
% Feeding inhibition
% 24-h mortality
WHO efficacy criteria≥ 95% KD60
≥ 80% 24-h mortality
≥ 90% feeding inhibition
≥ 80% 24-h mortality
≥ 90% feeding inhibition
≥ 80% 24-h mortality
Test validity on negative control≤ 10% mortality≥ 50% feeding success
≤ 10% mortality
≥ 50% feeding success
≤ 10% mortality
AnalysisDescriptive analysisDescriptive analysisDescriptive analysis and binary logistic regression