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Table 4 Adjusted associations for low birth weight and small for gestational age

From: First trimester use of artemisinin-based combination therapy and the risk of low birth weight and small for gestational age

 Prevalence-ratio (95% CIc)
Unadjustedap-valueAdjustedbp-value
LBW
 Birth weights measured within 24 h of birth (N)1543 1533 
  No exposure1 (reference) 1 (reference) 
  Artemisinin0.80 (0.31; 1.62)0.5750.91 (0.36; 1.81)0.809
  Quinine1.95 (0.87; 3.42)0.0992.17 (1.00; 3.65)0.049
 Birth weights measured within 7 days of birth (N)1915 1905 
  No exposure1 (reference) 1 (reference) 
  Artemisinin1.08 (0.55; 1.85)0.8061.19 (0.61; 2.00)0.579
  Quinine1.87 (0.85; 3.27)0.1092.13 (0.98; 3.59)0.055
  Quinine vs artemisinin
  Artemisinin1 (reference) 1 (reference) 
  Quinine with no Kenya data (N = 79)2.03 (0.73; 5.86)0.1721.70 (0.60; 5.17)0.321
  Quinine with Kenya data (N = 118)3.18 (1.02; 11.56)0.0471.93 (0.72; 5.68)0.188
SGA
 Birth weights measured within 24 h of birth (N)1520 1514 
  No exposure1 (reference) 1 (reference) 
  Artemisinin0.76 (0.37; 1.31)0.3630.83 (0.41; 1.42)0.516
  Quinine1.31 (0.54; 2.43)0.4951.19 (0.50; 2.17)0.660
 Birth weights measured within 7 days of birth (N)1888 1882 
  No exposure1 (reference) 1 (reference) 
  Artemisinin0.81 (0.43; 1.31)0.4170.78 (0.43; 1.25)0.337
  Quinine1.29 (0.55; 2.40)0.5141.11 (0.47; 2.02)0.789
  Quinine vs artemisinin
  Artemisinin confirmed1 (reference) 1 (reference) 
  Quinine confirmed with no Kenya data (N = 78)13.75 (2.16; 409.72)0.00313.11 (1.82; 441.93)0.004
  Quinine confirmed with Kenya data (N = 116)14.44 (2.18; 400.29)0.00412.04 (1.84; 330.23)0.008
  1. LBW low birth weight, SGA small for gestational age
  2. aUnadjusted regression includes dummy indicators for site
  3. bAdjusted for site, age at recruitment, gravidity, marital status and education level
  4. c95%CI—95% credible interval based on § posterior distribution replication