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Table 3 Summary of flavonoids

From: The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants: a review of pharmacological evaluations from 2013 to 2019

Compound subclass Isolated metabolites Plasmodial strain (activities) Plant species (Family), Taxon IDb Part of the plant studied Place of harvest (locality, country) Author, references
Flavanones and flavones 37 to 43 D6 (from 11.26 to 56.31 μM) Senecio roseiflorus (Compositae-Asteraceae), NCBI:txid1886451 Leaves Mount Kenya Forest, Meru, Kenya Kerubo et al. [76]
W2 (from 15.48 to 87.50 μM)
44 to 46 D6 (from 11.30 to 14.00 μM) Tephrosia villosa (Leguminosae-Fabaceae), NCBI:txid62125 Roots Manyani, TaitaTaveta County, Kenya Muiva-Mutisya et al. [77]
W2 (from 13.10 to 20.40 µM)
47 and 48 F32 (from 2.18 to 21.13 μM) Allanblackia floribunda (Guttiferae- Clusiaceae), NCBI:txid469914 Whole plant Mount Kala, Cameroon Azebaze et al. [78]
FcM29 (from 1.75 to 22.59 μM)
49 W2mef (19.37 μM) Peperomia vulcanica (Piperaceae), NCBI:txid1719589 Whole plant Mount Cameroon, Cameroon Ngemenya et al. [79]
Dd2 (3.18 μM)
Glycoflavonoids 50 and 51 D6 (97.1 and 42.9 μM, respectively) Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid124949 Leaves Gakoe Forest, Kiambu County, Kenya Irungu et al. [80]
W2 (105.8 μM)
52 and 53   Gardenia ternifolia (Rubiaceae), NCBI:txid1237590; Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae), NCBI:txid170354; and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), NCBI:txid126435 Stem barks and leaves Kinshasa, DR Congo Tshitenge et al. [26]
54 F32 (15.98 and 40.36 μM, respectively, at 24 h and 72 h) Allanblackia floribunda (Guttiferae- Clusiaceae), NCBI:txid469914 Whole plant Mount Kala, Cameroon Azebaze et al. [78]
FcM29 (11.69 and 33.24 µM , respectively, at 24 h and 72 h)
Isoflavones 55 to 70 W2 (from 14.9 to 53.1 μM) Millettia oblata ssp. teitensis (Leguminosae-Fabaceae), NCBI:txid53625 Stem bark Taita Hill Forest, Kenya Derese et al. [81]
63a D6 (from 13.3 to 48.7 μM)
71a to 74 3D7 and Dd2 (70 to 90% inhibition at 40 μM) Millettia dura (Leguminosae-Fabaceae), NCBI:txid62119 Root bark Kisarawe, Tanzania Marco et al. [82]
Retonoids 75 to 77 D6 (18.71 µM for compound 75 and 9.60 μg/mL for a mixture of compounds 76 and 77) Tephrosia villosa (Leguminosae-Fabaceae), NCBI:txid62125 Roots Manyani, Taita Taveta County, Kenya Muiva-Mutisya et al. [77]
W2 (28.64 µM for compound 75 and 22.60 μg/mL for a mixture of compounds 76 and 77)
  1. aCompounds identified for the first time in the cited publications
  2. bIdentification number of the source species, derived from the NCBI Taxonomy database