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Table 4 Summary of phenolics and quinones

From: The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants: a review of pharmacological evaluations from 2013 to 2019

Compound subclass Isolated metabolites Plasmodial strain (activities) Plant species (Family), Taxon IDb Part of the plant studied Place of harvest (locality, country) Author, references
Ellagic acid derivative (phenolics) 78 D6 (8.01 µM) Terminalia brownii (Combretaceae), NCBI:txid1548809 Stem bark Machakos County, Kenya Machumi et al. [84]
W2 (8.01 µM)
Phenolic glycosides (phenolics) 79 and 80   Gardenia ternifolia (Rubiaceae), NCBI:txid1237590; Crossopteryx febrifuga (Rubiaceae), NCBI:txid170354; and Lantana camara (Verbenaceae), NCBI:txid126435 Stem barks and leaves Kinshasa, DR Congo Tshitenge et al. [26]
Anthraquinones (quinones) 81a, 82 to 92 D6 (from 0.47 to 23.25 μM) Kniphofia foliosa (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid214838 Rhizomes Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Induli et al. [85]
89 W2 (from 0.35 to 18.42 μM )
93 D6 (7.73 μM) Kniphofia foliosa (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid214838 Roots Gedo, Ethiopia Abdissa et al. [86]
W2 (2.22 μM)
89a D6 (9.40 μM) Kniphofia foliosa (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid214838 Roots Gedo, Ethiopia Abdissa et al. [86]
W2 (14.58 μM)
82 3D7 (0.7 μM) Kniphofia foliosa (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid214838 Leaves Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Feilcke et al. [89]
90a and 91a K1 (0.17 and 0.26 μm, respectively) Bulbine frutescens (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid210954 Roots Chiromo Campus Garden, Kenya Bringmann et al. [87]
94 to 96 D6 (19.66 to 82.80 μM) Aloe pulcherrima (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid25641 Roots Saka Chokorsa, Ethiopia Abdissa et al. [88]
W2 (64.46 to 141.95 μM)
86 3D7 (1.9 μM) Kniphofia foliosa (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid214838 Leaves Addis Ababa, Ethiopia Feilcke et al. [89]
97a NF54 (weak activity) Diospyros canaliculata (Ebenaceae), NCBI:txid13492 Stem bark Kribi, Cameroon Lenta et al. [90]
Anthrones (quinones) 98 to 101 Suppression of parasitaemia from 36.8 to 66.8% at doses of 100 to 400 mg/kg /day Aloe percrassa (Asphodelaceae), NCBI:txid1593100 Leaf latex Edagahamus, Ethiopia Geremedhin et al. [91]
Naphthohydroquinones (quinones) 102a, 103a, 104a, 105a and 106a D6 (from 19.59 to 36.03 μM) Pentas bussei (syn: Rhodopentas bussei, Rubiaceae), NCBI:txid387051 Roots Mombasa, Kenya Endale et al. [92]
W2 (60.08 to 144.43 μM)
Other quinones 107 W2mef (52.25 μM) Peperomia vulcanica (Piperaceae), NCBI:txid1719589 Whole plant Mount Cameroon, Cameroon Ngemenya et al. [79]
108a D6 (19.28 μM) Neoboutonia macrocalyx (Euphorbaceae), NCBI:txid316724 Stem bark Kibale National Park, Uganda Namukobe et al. [93]
W2 (14.17 μM)
  1. aCompounds identified for the first time in the cited publications
  2. bIdentification number of the source species, derived from the NCBI Taxonomy database