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Table 7 Summary of triterpenoids

From: The potential of anti-malarial compounds derived from African medicinal plants: a review of pharmacological evaluations from 2013 to 2019

Compound subclass Isolated metabolites Plasmodial strain (activities) Plant species (Family), Taxon IDb Part of the plant studied Place of harvest (Locality, Country) Author, references
Acyclic triterpenes 132 and 133 D6 (IC50 values = 27.1 and 56.1 µM, respectively) Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid124949 Leaves Gakoe forest, Kiambu County, Kenya Irungu et al. [80]
W2 (IC50 values = 66.9 and 64.3 µM, respectively)
Apotirucallane triterpenoids 134a, 135a, 136a, 137a, 138a, 139a, and 140 to 142 NF54 (IC50 values range from 0.67 to 19.3 µM) Entandrophragma congoense (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid2590899 Bark Nkomokui, Cameroon Happi et al. [101]
Cycloartane triterpenes 143 to 150 FcB1 (all IC50 values < 11 μM, the lowest value being 1.48 μM) Neoboutonia macrocalyx (Euphorbaceae), NCBI:txid316724 Stem bark Kibale National Park, Uganda Namukobe et al. [96]
aAll new
Lanostane triterpene 151a D6 (IC50 value = 257.8 nM) Ganoderma sp. (Ganodermataceae), NCBI:txid5314 Whole organism Egypt Wahba et al. [102]
W2 (IC50 value = 2000.0 nM)
Limonoids 152 D6 (IC50 value = 84.7 µM) Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid124949 Leaves Gakoe forest, Kiambu County, Kenya Irungu et al. [80]
W2 (IC50 value = 150.2 µM)
153 to 157 D6 (IC50 values range from 2.4 to 36.6 µM) Turraea robusta (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid1899148 Root bark Nairobi, Kenya Irungu et al. [95]
W2 (from 1.1 to 40.5 µM)
Oleanane triterpenes 158 to 161 D6 (IC50 values range from 38.8 to 205.0 µM) Ekebergia capensis (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid124949 Leaves Gakoe forest, Kiambu County, Kenya Irungu et al. [80]
W2 (IC50 values range from 76.7 to 179.4 µM)
160 and 162 3D7 (IC50 values = 59.4 and 32.4 µM, respectively) Keetia leucantha (Rubiaceae), NCBI:txid 43504 Twigs Adjarra-Ouémé, Benin Republic Bero et al. [103]
162, 163 and 164 D10 (IC50 values range from 3.81 to 15.54 μM) Mimusops caffra (Sapotaceae), NCBI:txid362720 Leaves Durban, KwaZulu-Natal Province, South Africa Simelane et al. [104]
Tirucallane-type triterpenoids 165a , 166a and 167 NF54 (IC50 values range from 2.4 to 6.1 µM) Entandrophragma congoense (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid2590899 Bark Nkomokui, Cameroon Happi et al. [105]
Protolimonoids 168 to 170 D6 (IC50 values range from 36.8 to 48.2 µM) Turraea nilotica (Meliaceae), NCBI:txid992803 Stem bark Nairobi, Kenya Irungu et al. [95]
W2 (IC50 values range from 37.2 to 77.0 µM)
Other triterpenoids (hopane-type and cycloartane-type) 171 NF54 (IC50 value = 112.94 μM) Diospyros canaliculata (Ebenaceae), NCBI:txid13492 Stem bark Kribi, Cameroon Lenta et al. [90]
172 NF54 (IC50 value = 97.73 μM) Erythrina caffra (Papilionaceae), NCBI:txid3842 Stem bark Pietermaritzburg, South Africa Chukwujekwu et al. [106]
173 FcB1( IC50 value = 2.15 µM) Neoboutonia macrocalyx (Euphorbaceae), NCBI:txid316724 Stem bark Kibale National Park, Uganda Namukobe et al. [96]
  1. aCompounds identified for the first time in the cited publications
  2. bIdentification number of the source species, derived from the NCBI Taxonomy database