Skip to main content

Table 2 Baseline characteristics of women in the study

From: Coverage of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp) influences delivery outcomes among women with obstetric referrals at the district level in Ghana

VariableCategoryFrequency N = 460% 
DistrictA9420.5 
B6213.5 
C30466.1 
OwnershipGovernment39886.5 
Private6213.5 
Covered by Health InsuranceYes45498.7 
Age category< 205812.6 
20–3533973.7 
> 356313.7 
Parity category014732.0 
1–218239.6 
3–410322.4 
> 4286.1 
Highest education attainedNone7115.4 
Primary/Basic29363.7 
Secondary/Vocational8318.0 
Tertiary102.2 
Marital statusSingle7015.2 
Married25154.6 
Living together13930.2 
EmployedYes34875.7 
No11224.3 
Trimester at first ANC visit1st22749.3 
2nd19742.7 
3rd337.2 
No. of ANC visits so far0183.9 
1–39620.9 
≥ 434474.8 
Trimester at referral1st224.8 
2nd224.8 
3rd41089.1 
Previous pregnancy complicationYes6213.5 
No39886.5 
Complication in current pregnancyYes28461.7 
Previous referral in current pregnancyYes122.6 
Type of referring facility/where ANC and IPTp were receivedHealth center37581.5 
Polyclinic388.3 
Clinic386.1 
CHPS194.1 
Is referral emergencyYes24352.8 
Reason for referralComplication38082.6 
Lack of required staff7917.2 
Lack of space/bed30.7 
Lack of logistic/supplies/infrastructure367.8 
Lack of required service286.1 
Clinical Indication (complication) for this referralAnemia5010.87 
Vaginal bleeding/APH214.6 
Fetal distress102.2 
IUFD/No fetal heart132.8 
Malaria in pregnancy61.3 
Malpresentation194.1 
PIH/Preeclampsia/Eclampsia8217.8 
Post date6013.0 
Postpartum hemorrhage61.3 
Previous caesarean section408.7 
Prolonged labor296.3 
Other7917.2 
IPTp Doses received by delivery09019.6 
1–327960.7 
4–58318.0 
> 561.3 
< 5 (Inadequate, NMCP)42091.3 
≥ 5 (Adequate, NMCP)408.7 
< 3 (Inadequate, WHO)23751.5 
≥ 3 (Adequate, WHO)22348.5 
Gestational maturity at deliveryPre term6313.7 
Term28862.6 
Post maturity10923.7 
Hemoglobin at deliveryNormal7817.0 
Mild anemia19442.2 
Moderate anemia18840.8 
Maternal complication developed at deliveryYes18239.6 
Anemia122.6 
Abruptio placenta71.5 
PIH/eclampsia337.2 
Prolonged/obstructed labor4810.4 
Malpresentation327.0 
Postpartum hemorrhage81.7 
New-born complicationYes8718.9 
Low Birth Weight388.3 
Fetal distress255.4 
Asphyxia183.9 
Stillbirth61.3 
Intrauterine death20.4 
Sepsis122.8 
Jaundice10.2 
Birth weight categoryLow birth weight398.5 
Normal39786.3 
Big baby102.2 
Sex of babyMale25354.9 
Female20745.1 
VariableMean (95% CI)Standard deviationMedianInter-quartile range
Age of woman (years)28.0 (27.4 –28.6)6.528.010.0
Gestational age at first ANC (months)3.7 (3.5–3.9)1.83.03.0
Gestational age at referral (weeks)35.5 (34.7–36.2)7.938.05.0
Gestational age at delivery (weeks)38.4 (38.0–38.8)3.839.02.0
Hemoglobin at delivery (g/dl)10.0 (9.9–10.2)1.610.12.5
Birth weight (kg)3.1 (3.05–3.14)0.53.10.6
Doses of IPTp received2.2 (2.1–2.4)1.52.02.0