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Table 2 Causes, symptoms, and preventive characteristics by place of residence n = 3422. MMIS 2017

From: Levels of knowledge regarding malaria causes, symptoms, and prevention measures among Malawian women of reproductive age

 OverallUrbanRural
n (%)n (%)n (%)
Causes of malaria
 Mosquito bites (Yes)3325 (97.2)1576 (98.4)1749 (96.1)
 Eating immature sugarcane (No)3414 (99.8)1596 (99.6)3414 (99.9)
 Eating cold Nsima (No)3404 (99.5)1593 (99.4)1811 (99.5)
 Eating dirty food (No)3333 (97.4)1564 (97.6)1769 (97.2)
 Drinking dirty water (No)3326 (97.3)1563 (97.6)11,766 (97.0)
 Getting soaked in rain (No)3365 (98.3)1561 (97.4)1804 (99.1)
 Cold or changing weather (No)3292 (96.2)1545 (46.9)1747 (53.1)
Symptoms of malaria
 Fever (Yes)2648 (77.4)1270 (79.3)1378 (75.7)
 Feeling cold (Yes)1762 (51.5)779 (48.6)983 (54.0)
 Headache (Yes)2214 (64.7)955 (59.6)1259 (69.2)
 Nausea and vomiting (Yes)1874 (54.8)902 (56.3)972 (53.4)
 Diarrhea (Yes)2589 (75.7)1146 (71.5)1443 (79.3)
 Dizziness (Yes)3335 (97.5)1548 (96.6)1787 (98.2)
 Loss of appetite (Yes)3192 (93.3)1435 (89.6)1757 (96.5)
 Body ache or joint pain (Yes)2029 (59.3)918 (57.3)1111 (61.0)
 Pale eyes (Yes)3342 (97.7)1570 (98.0)1772 (97.4)
 Salty-tasting palms (Yes)3413 (99.7)1595 (99.6)1818 (99.9)
 Feeling weak (Yes)3011 (88.0)1390 (86.8)1321 (89.1)
 Refuse to eat or drink (Yes)3357 (98.1)1579 (986)1778 (97.7)
Prevention against malaria
 Sleep under a treated net (Yes)2209 (64.6)1037 (64.7)1172 (64.4)
 Sleep under an ITN (Yes)1150 (33.6)568 (35.5)582 (32.0)
 Use mosquito net (Yes)3317 (96.9)1510 (94.3)1807 (99.3)
 Take preventive medication (Yes)139 (4.1)67 (4.2)72 (4.0)
 Spray the house/rooms with insecticide (Yes)143 (4.2)110 (6.9)33 (1.8)
 Clear weeds around the house (Yes)356 (10.4)168 (10.5)188 (10.3)
 Use mosquito coils (Yes)3290 (96.1)1502 (93.7)1788 (98.2)
 Cut grass around house (Yes)507 (14.8)264 (16.5)243 (13.4)
 Fill in stagnant waters (puddles) (Yes)758 (22.2)432 (27.0)326 (17.9)
 Keep surroundings clean (Yes)923 (27.0)426 (26.6)497 (27.3)
 Burn leaves (Yes)27 (0.8)11 (0.7)16 (0.9)
 Avoid drinking dirty water (No)3272 (95.6)1554 (97.0)1718 (94.4)
 Avoid eating bad food (No)3342 (97.7)1574 (98.3)1768 (97.1)
 Put screens on windows (Yes)7 (0.2)6 (0.4)1 (0.1)
 Avoid getting soaked in rain (No)3395 (99.2)1585(99.9)1810 (99.5)
  1. ITN insecticide-treated nets