Skip to main content

Table 3 Unadjusted odds ratios of the association between submicroscopic P. falciparum infection and fever within strata of covariates

From: Submicroscopic malaria infection is not associated with fever in cross-sectional studies in Malawi

Characteristic Proportion with fevera (%) OR (95% CIb) Proportion with objective feverc OR (95% CI)
Season
 Rainy
  Submicroscopic 73/756 (9.7) 1.22 (0.94–1.58) 11/751 (1.5) 1.30 (0.68–2.47)
  No parasitaemia 458/5683 (8.1) Ref 64/5648 (1.1) Ref
 Dry
  Submicroscopic 23/652 (3.5) 0.51 (0.33–0.78) 5/652 (0.8) 0.65 (0.26–1.60)
  No parasitaemia 478/7148 (6.7) Ref 84/7115 (1.2) Ref
District
 Blantyre
  Submicroscopic 15/282 (5.3) 0.98 (0.56–1.69) 1/282 (0.4) 0.38 (0.05–2.76)
  No parasitaemia 261/4637 (5.6) Ref 43/4615 (0.9) Ref
 Chikhwawa
  Submicroscopic 61/727 (8.4) 0.94 (0.69–1.27) 12/725 (1.7) 0.97 (0.5–1.80)
  No parasitaemia 328/3762 (8.7) Ref 64/3746 (1.7) Ref
 Thyolo
  Submicroscopic 20/399 (5.0) 0.62 (0.39–1.0) 3/396 (0.8) 0.81 (0.25–2.63)
  No parasitaemia 347/4432 (7.8) Ref 41/4402 (0.9) Ref
Age groups
 6 months–5 years
  Submicroscopic 19/181 (10.5) 1.15 (0.70–1.88) 1/181 (0.55) 0.40 (0.06–2.97)
  No parasitaemia 281/3040 (9.2) Ref 41/3040(1.3) Ref
 6–15 years
  Submicroscopic 26/597 (4.4) 0.86 (0.56–1.31) 4/596 (0.6) 0.50 (0.81–1.40)
  No parasitaemia 191/3796 (5.0) Ref 50/3776 (1.3) Ref
 16 years & above
  Submicroscopic 51/630 (8.1) 1.05 (0.78–1.42) 11/628 (1.8) 1.85 (0.96–3.54)
  No parasitaemia 464/5995 (7.7) Ref 57/5957 (0.9) Ref
  1. OR: odds ratio
  2. aFever: At least one of these 3: reported fever in the past 2 weeks, reported fever in the past 48 h and temperature measured at the time of the interview and specimen collection
  3. b95% CI: 95% confidence interval from mixed effect logistic regression adjusted for clustering within household and EA
  4. cObjective fever: Measured temperature ≥ 37.5° (14, 166 participants)