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Table 4 Difference in Differences (DID) Estimation with and without confounders

From: Effectiveness of a health education intervention on the use of long-lasting insecticidal nets for the prevention of malaria in pregnant women of Pakistan: a quasi-experimental study

Difference in differences (DID) without confounders
Outcome variables Baseline (BL) Post-intervention (PI) Diff-In-Diff
Control Intervention Diff (BL) Control Intervention Diff (EL)
 Knowledge 5.250a 5.680 0.430 5.820 10.420 4.600 4.170
  SEb    0.312    0.235 0.390
  t value    1.380    19.57 10.68
  p value    0.169    0.000*** 0.000***
  R square 0.54       
 Use of LLINs 4.530 4.510 − 0.020 4.850 8.190 3.340 3.360
  SEb    0.245    0.194 0.313
  t value    − 0.08    17.18 10.75
  p value    0.935    0.000*** 0.000***
  R square 0.59       
Difference in differences (DID) with confounders
 Knowledge 5.605 5.712 0.107 6.175 10.452 4.277 4.170
  SE    0.309    0.309 0.383 |
  t value    0.35 0    13.82 10.90
  p value    0.730    0.000*** 0.000***
  R square 0.58       
  Confounders Yes       
 Use of LLINs 2.785 2.546 − 0.239 3.105 6.226 3.121 3.360
  SE    0.250    0.250 | 0.309
  t value    − 0.95    12.48 10.87
  p value    0.341    0.000*** 0.000***
  R square 0.53       
  Confounders Yes       
  1. Confounders: age, education, income, etc
  2. ***p < 0.01
  3. aMeans and SE are estimated by linear regression
  4. bRobust Std. Errors