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Table 3 Logistic regression results to assess the risk factors associated with RDT positivity: Individuals ≥ 10 years old

From: Mass testing and treatment for malaria followed by weekly fever screening, testing and treatment in Northern Senegal: feasibility, cost and impact

Covariates N (% of total population ≥ 10 years) n (distribution of RDT-positive population (%) ≥ 10 years) Univariable odds ratio (95% CI) p-value Multivariable adjusted odds ratio (95% CI) p-value
Sociodemographic characteristics
Sex
Female 6209 (58.2%) 59 (40.1%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Male 4455 (41.8%) 88 (59.9%) 2.10 (1.51–2.93)
p < 0.001
1.93 (1.10–3.36)
p = 0.021
Age (years)
10–14 years 2420 (22.7%) 67 (45.6%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
15–19 years 1731 (16.2%) 27 (18.4%) 0.56 (0.35–0.87)
p = 0.011
0.67 (0.38–1.17)
p = 0.156
20–29 years 2601 (24.4%) 22 (15.0%) 0.30 (0.18–0.49)
p < 0.001
0.31 (0.17–0.56)
p < 0.001
30–39 years 1588 (14.9%) 14 (9.5%) 0.31 (0.17–0.56)
p < 0.001
0.36 (0.18–0.72)
p = 0.004
40–49 years 923 (8.7%) 6 (4.1%) 0.23 (0.10–0.53)
p < 0.001
0.22 (0.08–0.56)
p = 0.002
50–59 years 644 (6.0%) 4 (2.7%) 0.22 (0.08–0.60)
p = 0.003
0.20 (0.07–0.63)
p = 0.006
60+ years 757 (7.1%) 7 (4.8%) 0.33 (0.15–0.72)
p = 0.005
0.33 (0.14–0.79)
p = 0.013
Education
None/illiterate 8635 (81.0%) 119 (81.0%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Primary/Arabic school 1784 (16.7%) 21 (14.3%) 0.85 (0.53–1.36)
p = 0.503
0.65 (0.33–1.30)
p = 0.227
Secondary/university 227 (2.1%) 6 (4.1%) 1.94 (0.85–4.46)
p = 0.117
6.12 (1.97–19.08)
p = 0.002
Other 18 (0.2%) 1 (0.7%) 4.21 (0.56–31.89)
p = 0.164
7.05 (0.86–57.67)
p = 0.068
Occupation
Farmer/shepherd 3368 (31.6%) 52 (35.4%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Student 982 (9.2%) 12 (8.2%) 0.79 (0.42–1.48)
p = 0.462
0.70 (0.27–1.85)
p = 0.473
Housekeeper 4315 (40.5%) 33 (22.4%) 0.49 (0.32–0.76)
p < 0.001
0.84 (0.40–1.74)
p = 0.633
Unemployed 1633 (15.3%) 43 (29.3%) 1.72 (1.15–2.59)
p = 0.009
1.25 (0.70–2.25)
p = 0.447
Other 366 (3.4%) 7 (4.8%) 1.24 (0.56–2.76)
p = 0.592
1.18 (0.44–3.15)
p = 0.738
Individual malaria risk factors
Used a bed net on previous night
No 3893 (36.5%) 55 (37.4%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Yes 6771 (63.5%) 92 (62.6%) 0.96 (0.69–1.35)
p = 0.818
0.77 (0.51–1.18)
p = 0.233
Travelled outside of district in previous two weeks
No 10,315 (96.7%) 144 (98.0%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Yes 349 (3.3%) 3 (2.0%) 0.61 (0.19–1.93)
p = 0.403
0.82 (0.18–3.81)
p = 0.805
Axillary temperature ≥ 37.5 °C or reported fever within previous 24 h
No 10,319 (96.8%) 101 (68.7%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Yes 345 (3.2%) 46 (31.3%) 15.56 (10.78–22.47)
p < 0.001
24.75 (15.20–40.30)
p < 0.001
Used anti-malarial in previous month
No 10,610 (99.5%) 138 (93.9%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Yes 54 (0.5%) 9 (6.1%) 15.18 (7.28–31.65)
p < 0.001
8.67 (3.30–22.77)
p < 0.001
Household-level risk factors
> 1 RDT positives in household
No 10,349 (97.0%) 88 (59.9%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Yes 315 (3.0%) 59 (40.1%) 26.87 (18.89–38.22)
p < 0.001
20.10 (12.90–31.31)
p < 0.001
Other members of household travelled outside of district in previous two weeks
No 8430 (79.1%) 132 (89.8%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Yes 2234 (20.9%) 15 (10.2%) 0.42 (0.25–0.73)
p = 0.002
0.62 (0.32–1.20)
p = 0.159
Health facility catchment area
Dounde 1321 (12.4%) 13 (8.8%) 1.0 (ref) 1.0 (ref)
Salalatou 1703 (16.0%) 57 (38.8%) 3.48 (1.90–6.39)
p < 0.001
2.53 (1.18–5.43)
p = 0.017
Oudalaye 1012 (9.5%) 14 (9.5%) 1.41 (0.66–3.02)
p = 0.374
2.16 (0.83–5.57)
p = 0.113
Niaghana tidel 3602 (33.8%) 18 (12.2%) 3.03 (1.55–5.93)
p < 0.001
2.02 (0.86–4.75)
p = 0.107
Mbem mbem 889 (8.3%) 26 (17.7%) 0.90 (0.44–1.83)
p = 0.777
1.03 (0.43–2.47)
p = 0.940
Gassane 2137 (20.0%) 19 (12.9%) 0.51 (0.25–1.03)
p = 0.062
0.43 (0.18–1.03)
p = 0.058
Constant 0.01 (0.00–0.02)
p < 0.001
Total 10,664 147 10,664 10,664
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