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Table 1 Summary of genetic correlates of drug resistance in P. falciparum and P. vivax

From: Implementing parasite genotyping into national surveillance frameworks: feedback from control programmes and researchers in the Asia–Pacific region

Species Anti-malarial Country (policy)a Gene Validated mutations Associated mutations References
P. falciparum Artemisinin derivatives BD, BT, KH, CN, ID, IN, LA, MY, MM, NP, PH, PG, SB, TH, TL, VU, VN pfkelch13 Y493H, R539T, I543T, R561H, C580Y P441L, F446I, G449A, N458Y, M476I, N537D, P553L, V568G, P574L, M579I, D584V, A675V, H719N [12, 13]
  Piperaquine CN, ID, MM, TH, VN pfpm2/pfpm3  ≥ 2 copies of the gene [16, 17]
  Mefloquine KH, MY, MM pfmdr1  ≥ 2 copies of the gene S1034C, N1042D [18, 83, 84]
  Lumefantrine BD, BT, CN, ID, LA, MM, NP, PH, PG, SB., TL, VU pfmdr1 N86Y, [85, 86]
  Chloroquine ID, KR, SB (IPT), VU (IPT) pfcrt K76T with; M74I and N75E, or C72S [87]
    pfmdr1 N86Y, S1034C, N1042D, D1246Y [84, 88]
  Sulfadoxine ID, PG (IPT) pfdhps S436A, K437G, K540E, A581G, A613S/T [89, 90]
  Pyrimethamine PG (IPT) pfdhfr C50R, N51I, C59R, S108N, I164L [89]
  Amodiaquine CN pfcrt C72S and K76T [91]
    pfmdr1 N86Y, D1246Y [81, 91]
  Pyronaridine CN
  Primaquine ID, IN, LA, NP, PH
  Quinine BD, BT, KH, ID, IN, MY, MM, PH, KR, SB, TL, VN
P. vivax Chloroquine BD, BT, CN, KP, ID, MM, NP, PH, KR, SL, TH, VN pvcrt-o Increased expression, 14 TGAAGH motifs in intron 9 [25, 26]
    Intergenic 15 TGAAGH motifs at MS334 (upstream of pvcrt-o) [26]
    pvmdr1 Increased expression, Y976F, F1076L [25, 92, 93]
  Sulfadoxine pvdhps A383G, A553G [94, 95]
  Pyrimethamine pvdhfr F57L, S58R, T61M, S117T, S117N [96,97,98,99,100,101]
  Mefloquine KH, MY pvmdr1  ≥ 2 copies of the gene [102,103,104]
  Amodiaquine pvmdr1 Y976F [96]
  Artemisinin derivatives KH, IN, LA, MY, PH, PNG, SB, TL, VU
  Piperaquine CN, IN
  Lumefantrine LA, MY, PH, PG, SB, TL, VU
  Primaquine BD, BT, KH, CN, KP, ID, IN, LA, MY, MM, NP, PH, PG, KR, SB, TH, TL, VU, VN
  1. Countries are listed using two letter codes BD Bangladesh, BT Bhutan, KH Cambodia, CN China, IN India, ID Indonesia, KP DPR of Korea, KR Rep. of Korea, LA Lao PDR, MY Malaysia, MM Myanmar, NP Nepal, PH Philippines, PG PNG, SB Solomon Is., TH Thailand, TL Timor-Leste, VN Vietnam, VU Vanuatu
  2. aCountries in the Asia–Pacific region where the given anti-malarial drug is implemented as national drug policy (alone or in combination) for treatment of uncomplicated unconfirmed, uncomplicated confirmed or severe P. falciparum or P. vivax infection, or for intermittent preventative treatment in pregnant women (IPT) [1]