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Table 2 Proportion of Pfk13, Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt polymorphisms in day 0 and day of failure samples in Artemether−lumefantrine treatment arm

From: Assessment of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance among children participating in a therapeutic efficacy study in western Kenya

Molecular marker Artemether−lumefantrine treatment arm
ACPR + Reinfection Recrudescent- pa Recrudescent + Reinfection pb
Pfk13
 Wild type (no or mixed mutations detected) 129/130 (99.2%) 13/13 (100.0%) Ref 58/58 (100.0%) Ref
 522C 1/130 (0.8%) 0 1 1/58 (1.7%) 0.53
 578S 2/130 (1.5%) 0 1 0 1
Pfmdr1
 N86 131/132 (99.2%) 15/15 (100.0%) Ref 62/62 (100.0%) Ref
 86 N/Y 1/132 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
 86Y 0 0 1 0 1
 Y184 53/132 (40.2%) 5/15 (33.3%) Ref 23/62 (37.1%) Ref
 184Y/F 35/132 (26.5%) 3/15 (20.0%) 1 11/62 (17.7%) 0.31
 184F 44/132 (33.3%) 7/15 (46.7%) 1 28/62 (45.2%) 0.90
 D1246 116/132 (87.9%) 13/15 (86.7%) Ref 57/62 (91.9%) Ref
 1246D/Y 10/132 (7.6%) 2/15 (13.3%) 1 3/62 (4.8%) 1
 1246Y 6/132 (4.5%) 0 1 2/62 (3.2%) 1
 NYD 85/132 (64.4%) 8/15 (53.3%) Ref 32/62 (51.6%) Ref
 YFD 1/132 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
 NFD 76/132 (57.6%) 10/15 (66.7%) 1 39/62 (62.9%) 1
 NFY 9/132 (6.8%) 1/15 (6.7%) 1 2/62 (3.2%) 1
 NYY 11/132 (8.3%) 2/15 (13.3%) 1 5/62 (8.1%) 1
 YYD 1/132 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
 YFY 0 0 1 0 1
 YYY 0 0 1 0 1
Pfcrt
 C72 131/131 (100.0%) 15/15 (100%) Ref 62/62 (100%) Ref
 72S 0 0 1 0 1
 M74 128/131 (97.7%) 15/15 (100.0%) Ref 62/62 (100.0%) Ref
 74 M/I 2/131 (1.5%) 0 1 0 1
 74I 1/131 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
 N75 128/131 (97.7%) 15/15 (100.0%) Ref 62/62 (100.0%) Ref
 75 N/D 2/131 (1.5%) 0 1 0 1
 75E 1/131 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
 K76 128/131 (97.7%) 15/15 (100.0%) Ref 62/62 (100.0%) Ref
 76 K/T 2/131 (1.5%) 0 1 0 1
 76T 1/131 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
 CVMNK 130/131 (99.2%) 15/15 (100.0%) Ref 62/62 (100.0%) Ref
 CVIDT 2/131 (1.5%) 0 1 0 1
 CVMDT 0 0 1 0 1
 CVIET 1/131 (0.8%) 0 1 0 1
  1. ACPR: adequate clinical and parasitological response; ACPR + Reinfection: Samples collected pre-treatment (day 0) from participants without recurrent parasitaemia and from participants who were re-infected; Recrudescent: Samples collected on the day of failure from participants with recrudescent parasitaemia; Reinfection: Samples collected on the day of failure from participants who were re-infected; Ref: reference; aBonferroni adjusted statistical significance of difference in risk of treatment failure (recrudescence) determined by Fisher’s exact test; bBonferroni-adjusted statistical significance of difference in risk of recrudescence or reinfection determined by Fishers’s exact test. Bold letter denotes an encoded amino acid change; Totals may not sum due to mixed infections (samples with both wild and mutant codons) which were counted as both wild and mutant haplotypes); Two samples yielded the following findings for Pfcrt: C at site 72, M and I at site 74, N and D at site 75, K and T at site 76. These were considered mixed infections with CVMNK and CVIDT