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Table 3 Proportion of Pfk13, Pfmdr1 and Pfcrt polymorphisms in day 0 and day of failure samples in Dihydroartemisinin−piperaquine treatment arm

From: Assessment of molecular markers of anti-malarial drug resistance among children participating in a therapeutic efficacy study in western Kenya

Molecular marker  Dihydroartemisinin−piperaquine treatment arm
ACPR + Reinfection Recrudescent pa Recrudescence + Reinfection pb
Pfk13
 Wild type (no or mixed mutations detected) 144/145 (99.3%) 7/8 (87.5%) Ref 27/28 (96.4%) Ref
 522C 1/145 (0.7%) 0 1 0 1
 578S 3/145 (2.1%) 1/8 (12.5%) 0.38 2/28 (7.1%) 0.38
Pfmdr1
 N86 150/150 (100.0%) 8/9 (88.9%) Ref 32/33 (97.0%) Ref
 86 N/Y 0 0 1 0 1
 86Y 0 1/9 (11.1%) 0.18 1/33 (3.0%) 0.54
 Y184 67/150 (44.7%) 3/9 (33.3%) Ref 13/33 (39.4%) Ref
 184Y/F 28/150 (18.7%) 2/9 (22.2%) 1 5/33 (15.2%) 1
 184F 55/150 (36.7%) 4/9 (44.4%) 0.36 15/33 (45.5%) 1
 D1246 139/150 (92.7%) 9/9 (100%) Ref 33/33 (100%) Ref
 1246D/Y 6/150 (4.0%) 0 1 0 1
 1246Y 5/150 (3.3%) 0 1 0 1
 NYD 93/150 (62.0%) 5/9 (55.6%) Ref 18/33 (54.5%) Ref
 YFD 0 1/9 (11.1%) 0.48 1/33 (3.0%) 1
 NFD 80/150 (53.3%) 5/9 (55.6%) 1 19/33 (57.6%) 1
 NFY 7/150 (4.7%) 0 1 0 1
 NYY 7/150 (4.7%) 0 1 0 1
 YYD 0 0 1 0 1
 YFY 0 0 1 0 1
 YYY 0 0 1 0 1
Pfcrt
 C72 149/149 (100.0%) 9/9 (100.0%) Ref 33/33 (100.0%) Ref
 72S 0 0 1 0 1
 M74 148/149 (99.3%) 8/9 (88.9%) Ref 31/33 (93.9%) Ref
 74 M/I 0 0 1 0 1
 74I 1/149 (0.7%) 1/9 (11.1%) 0.33 2/33 (6.1%) 0.27
 N75 146/149 (98.0%) 8/9 (88.9%) Ref 31/33 (93.9%) Ref
 75 N/D 2/149 (1.3%) 0 1 0 1
 75E 1/149 (0.7%) 1/9 (11.1%) 0.33 2/33 (6.1%) 0.27
 K76 146/149 (99.3%) 8/9 (88.9%) Ref 31/33 (93.9%) Ref
 76 K/T 2/149 (1.3%) 0 1 0 1
 76T 1/149 (0.7%) 1/9 (11.1%) 0.33 2/33 (6.1%) 0.27
 CVMNK 148/149 (99.3%) 8/9 (88.9%) Ref 31/33 (93.9%) Ref
 CVIDT 0 0 1 0 1
 CVMDT‡‡ 2/149 (1.3%) 0 1 0 1
 CVIET 1/149 (0.7%) 1/9 (11.1%) 0.33 2/33 (6.1%) 0.27
  1. ACPR: adequate clinical and parasitological response; ACPR + Reinfection: Samples collected pre-treatment (day 0) from participants without recurrent parasitaemia and from participants who were re-infected; Recrudescent: Samples collected on the day of failure from participants with recrudescent parasitaemia; Reinfection: Samples collected on the day of failure from participants who were re-infected; Ref: reference; aBonferroni-adjusted statistical significance of difference in risk of treatment failure (recrudescence) determined by Fisher’s exact test. bBonferroni-adjusted statistical significance of difference in risk of recrudescence or reinfection determined by Fisher’s exact test. Bold letter denotes an encoded amino acid change; Totals may not sum due to mixed infections (samples with mixed infections were counted as both wild and mutant haplotypes); ‡‡Two samples yielded the following findings for Pfcrt: C at site 72, M at site 74, N and D at site 75, K and T at site 76. These were considered mixed infections with CVMNK and CVMDT