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Table 2 Proportion of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletion overall, by RDT−/microscopy+/PCR+, RDT+/microscopy+/PCR+ and by geographical location

From: Molecular surveillance reveals the presence of pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 gene deletions in Plasmodium falciparum parasite populations in Uganda, 2017–2019

Gene deletion Overall proportions and stratified by RDT/microscopy results
Total (N = 300), Proportion
n (%, 95% CI)
RDT-/micro+/PCR+
N = 165
n (%, 95% CI)
RDT+/micro+/PCR+
N = 135
n (%, 95% CI)
Prevalence ratio
(RDT-/RDT+)
n (95% CI)
p value
Any deletion 29 (9.7, 6.6–13.6) 24 (14.5, 9.5–20.9) 5 (3.7, 1.2–8.4) 3.9 (1.5–10.0) 0.002
pfhrp2/pfhrp3+ 10 (3.3, 1.6–6.0) 9 (5.5, 2.5–10.1) 1 (0.7, 0.0–4.1) 7.4 (1.0–57.4) 0.021
pfhrp2 +/pfhrp3 9 (3.0, 1.4-5.6) 5 (3.0, 1.0–6.9) 4 (3.0, 0.8–7.4) 1.02 (0.3–3.7) 1.000
pfhrp2/pfhrp3 10 (3.3, 1.6–6.0) 10 (6.1, 2.9–10.9) 0 (0.0, 0.0–2.7) N/A 0.004
pfhrp2 +/pfhrp3+ 185 (61.7, 55.9–67.2) 61 (37.0, 29.6–44.8) 124 (91.9, 85.9–95.9) 0.4 (0.3–0.5) 0.001
Deletions by geographical location
Gene deletion Eastern (N = 170), n (%, 95% CI) Western (N = 130),
n (%, 95% CI)
Prevalence ratio
(Eastern/Western)
n (95% CI)
p-value
Any deletion 25 (14.7, 9.7–20.0) 4 (3.1, 0.8–7.7) 4.8 (1.7–13.4) 0.001
pfhrp2/pfhrp3+ 8 (4.7, 2.1–9.1) 2 (1.5, 0.2–5.4) 3.1 (0.7–14.2) 0.125
pfhrp2+/pfhrp3 8 (4.7, 2.1–9.1) 1 (0.8, 0.0–4.2) 6.1 (0.8–48.3) 0.050
pfhrp2/pfhrp3 9 (5.3, 2.4–9.8) 1 (0.8, 0.0–4.2) 6.9 (0.9–53.6) 0.032
pfhrp2+/pfhrp3+ 102 (60.0, 52.2–67.4) 83 (63.8, 55.0–72.1) 0.9 (0.8–1.1) 0.502
  1. Parasite isolates were categorized as those in which the pfhrp2 gene was deleted but pfhrp3 gene present (pfhrp2/pfhrp3+), the pfhrp3 gene deleted but pfhrp2 gene present (pfhrp2+/pfhrp3−), those in which both genes were deleted (pfhrp2/pfhrp3−) and those where both pfhrp2 and pfhrp3 genes were present (pfhrp2+/pfhrp3+). Any deletion means total (overall) number of samples where deletion of any type was detected (summation of pfhrp2/pfhrp3+, pfhrp2+/pfhrp3− and pfhrp2/pfhrp3−)