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Table 1 Knowledge of malaria among respondents by location of residence (rural/urban), Igabi LGA, Kaduna Nigeria, (N = 629)

From: Rural–urban disparities and factors associated with delayed care-seeking and testing for malaria before medication use by mothers of under-five children, Igabi LGA, Kaduna Nigeria

Knowledge characteristics Rural (n = 300) Urban (n = 329) Chi square p-value
Overall knowledge of malaria
 Good 54 (38.8) 85 (61.2) 5.9 0.05
 Average 102 (48.8) 107 (51.2)   
 Poor 144 (51.3) 137 (48.7)   
Malaria transmission route to humans
 Bite of malaria infected mosquito 261 (87.0) 292 (88.8) 10.9  < 0.01
 Do not know 30 (10.0) 15 (4.5)   
 Through contaminated water/foods 9 (3.0) 22 (6.7)   
Malaria mosquito feeding time
 Both day and night-time 73 (24.3) 44 (13.4) 89.2  < 0.01
 Day time 11 (3.7) 4 (1.2)   
 Do not know 60 (20.0) 5 (1.5)   
 Night-time 156 (52.0) 276 (83.9)   
Malaria diagnosis
 Blood microscopy 47 (15.7) 48 (14.6) 37.8  < 0.01
 Do not know 37 (12.3) 19 (5.8)   
 Symptomatically 58 (19.3) 134 (40.7)   
 Testing blood with malaria RDT 158 (52.7) 128 (38.9)   
    OR (95% C.I) p-value
Malaria symptoms (yes/no) reference, no
 Fever 269 (89.7) 309 (93.9) 0.6 (0.3–1.0) 0.07
 Headache 217 (72.3) 262 (79.6) 0.7 (0.5–0.9) 0.04
 Vomiting 164 (54.7) 188 (57.1) 0.9 (0.7–1.2) 0.59
 Shivering 162 (54.0) 119 (36.2) 2.1 (1.5–2.8) < 0.01
 Diarrhoea 50 (16.7) 38 (11.5) 1.5 (0.9–2.4) 0.08
 Dizziness 44 (14.7) 115 (35.0) 0.3 (0.2–0.5) < 0.01
 Nausea 40 (13.3) 86 (26.1) 0.4 (0.3–0.7) < 0.01
 Loss of appetite 28 (9.3) 93 (29.2) 0.2 (0.1–0.4) < 0.01
Malaria prevention (yes/no) reference, no
 Clearing of grasses/breeding sites 197 (65.7) 228 (69.3) 0.8 (0.6–1.2) 0.37
 Use long lasting insecticidal nets 108 (36.0) 144 (43.8) 0.7 (0.5–1.0) 0.05
 Use mosquito coil or repellent 51 (17.0) 90 (27.4) 0.5 (0.4–0.8) < 0.01
 Wearing long sleeve shirts 9 (3.0) 10 (3.04) 1 (0.4–2.5) 1.00
 Indoor residual spray 1 (0.3) 66 (20.1) 0.01 (0.0–0.1) < 0.01