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Table 2 Patient demographic details, clinical data, and diagnostic accuracy of screening hospital microscopy

From: Comparative evaluation of two commercial real-time PCR kits (QuantiFast™ and abTES™) for the detection of Plasmodium knowlesi and other Plasmodium species in Sabah, Malaysia

Species (no. of patients tested), or parameter P. knowlesi (52) P. vivax (25) P. falciparum (21) P. malariae (10) Negative controls (26) p-value
Age, median years (range) 35 (25, 47) 18 (9, 34) 16 (10, 39) 14 (7, 23) 44 (22, 76) < 0.001a
Sex, n male (%) 43 (83) 18 (72) 20 (95) 7 (70) 12 (46) 0.001
Parasitaemia, geometric mean parasites/µL, (95% CI), [range] 9435 (7320–12,161)
[138–35,873]
9411 (7004–12,645)
[625–36,248]
24,631 (14,406–42,115)
[1074–297,000]
1023 (586–1787)
[224–3056]
< 0.001b
Hospital microscopyc
 Sensitivityd, TP/TP + FN;
 % (95% CI)
41/52;
78.8
(65.3, 88.9)
23/25;
92.0
(74.0, 99.0)
17/21;
81.0
(58.1, 94.6)
0/10;
0
(0, 30.8)
< 0.001
 Specificity, TN/TN + FP;  % (95% CI) 45/56;
80.4
(67.6, 89.8)
83/83;
100
(95.7, 100)
86/87;
98.9
(93.8, 100)
87/98;
88.8
(80.8, 94.3)
< 0.001
  1. aP. knowlesi compared to: P. vivax (t = 3.3, df = 39, p = 0.002); P. falciparum (t = 2.6, df = 29, p = 0.02); P. malariae (t = 4.8, df = 15, p < 0.001); P. knowlesi against negative controls (t = 2.1, df = 54, p = 0.04)
  2. bP. knowlesi compared to: P. vivax (t = 0.1, df = 59, p = 0.99); P. falciparum (t = 3.3, df = 30, p = 0.002); P. malariae (t = 8.0, df = 14, p < 0.001)
  3. cHospital microscopy compared against reference PCR
  4. d2 P. vivax monoinfections misidentified as P. knowlesi; 4 P. falciparum infections misidentified as mixed P. knowlesi/P. falciparum; 10 P. malariae infections misidentified as P. knowlesi