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Table 4 Performance of microscopy and real-time PCR compared to the reference nested PCR, including sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and disease prevalence (DP)

From: Molecular epidemiological surveillance of Africa and Asia imported malaria in Wuhan, Central China: comparison of diagnostic tools during 2011–2018

Nested PCR ™ as standard (confirmed by sequencing)
Methodological evaluation Plasmodium species
P. falciparum P. vivax P. ovale P. malariae
Nested PCR VS microscopy Parameters Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
Positive 240 4 17 0 22 0 6 0
Negative 8 44 0 279 3 271 0 290
Analyze Percentage (95% CI) Percentage (95% CI) Percentage (95% CI) Percentage (95% CI)
Sensitivity 96.77 (93.51–98.49) 100.00 (77.08–100.00) 88.00 (67.66–96.85) 100.00 (51.68–100.00)
Specificity 91.67 (79.13–97.30) 100.00 (98.31–100.00) 100.00 (98.26–100.00) 100.00 (98.37–100.00)
PPV 98.36 (95.58–99.47) 100.00 (77.08–100.00) 100.00 (81.50–100.00) 100.00 (51.68–100.00)
NPV 84.62 (71.37–92.66) 100.00 (98.31–100.00) 98.91 (96.57–99.72) 100.00 (98.37–100.00)
DP 83.78 (78.97–87.69) 5.74 (3.49–9.21) 8.45 (5.65–12.36) 2.03 (0.83–4.58)
  Accurancy 95.95 (93.03–97.89) 100 (98.76–100.00) 98.99 (97.07–99.79) 100 (98.76–100)
Nested PCR VS real time PCR Parameters Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative Positive Negative
Positive 239 0 17 0 25 0 6 0
Negative 9 48 0 279 0 271 0 290
Analyze Percentage (95% CI) Percentage (95% CI) Percentage (95% CI) Percentage (95% CI)
Sensitivity 96.37 (92.99–98.22) 100.00 (77.08–100.00) 100.00 (83.42–100.00) 100.00 (51.68–100.00)
Specificity 100 (90.77–100) 100.00 (98.31–100.00) 100.00 (98.26–100.00) 100.00 (98.37–100.00)
PPV 100 (98.03–100) 100.00 (77.08–100.00) 100.00 (83.42–100.00) 100.00 (51.68–100.00)
NPV 84.21 (71.63–92.09) 100.00 (98.31–100.00) 100.00 (98.26–100.00) 100.00 (98.37–100.00)
DP 83.78 (78.97–87.69) 5.74 (3.49–9.21) 8.45 (5.65–12.36) 2.03 (0.83–4.58)
  Accurancy 96.96 (94.31–98.60) 100 (98.76–100) 100 (98.76–100) 100 (98.76–100)