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Table 2 Clinical and demographic characteristics of the study population stratified by survival status

From: The clinical spectrum of severe childhood malaria in Eastern Uganda

Variable Overall, N (%) Survivors N (%) Deaths N (%) P value
Number 662 599 63
Age
Median age (months; IQR) 18 (10–33) 18 (10–33) 18 (9–29) 0.67
Gender
 Male 382/662 (57.7) 343 (57.2) 39 (61.9) 0.48
Clinical symptoms
 Fever in this illness 648/662 (98.0) 586 (97.8) 62 (98.4) 0.76
 Cough 130/662 (19.6) 121 (20.2) 9 (14.2) 0.26
 Vomiting 266/662 (40.2) 242 (40.4) 24 (38.0) 0.72
 Diarrhoea 238/662 (36.0) 214 (35.7) 24 (38.0) 0.71
 Convulsionsb 147/662 (22.2) 123 (20.5) 24 (38.0) 0.001
 Red or cola-coloured urine 93/662 (14.0) 81 (13.5) 12 (19.0) 0.23
Clinical signs
General
 Pyrexia (> 37.5 °C) 411/662 (62.1) 380 (63.4) 31 (49.2) 0.027
 Hyperpyrexia (≥ 40.0 °C) 55/662 (8.3) 47 (7.8) 8 (12.6) 0.81
 Hypothermia (< 36.0 °C) 11/662 (1.7) 10 (1.6) 1 (1.6) 0.96
 Pallor 338/662 (51.1) 293 (48.9) 45 (71.4) 0.001
 Clinical jaundice 177/662 (26.7) 156 (26.0) 21 (33.3) 0.21
Respiratory system
 Respiratory distress 554/662 (83.7) 501 (83.6) 53 (84.1) 0.92
 Hypoxaemia (SpO2 < 92%) 49/662 (7.4) 35 (5.8) 14 (22.2) < 0.0001
Cardiovascular/hydration
 Severe tachycardiaa 291/629 (46.2) 267/570 (46.8) 24 (40.6) 0.37
 Temperature gradient 251/662 (37.9) 222 (37.0) 29 (46.0) 0.16
 Capillary refill time > 2 secs 135/662 (20.4) 114 (19.0) 21 (33.3) 0.007
 Weak pulse 23/662 (3.5) 20 (3.3) 3 (4.7) 0.56
 Sunken eyes (dehydration) 66/634 (10.4) 58/573 (10.1) 8/61 (13.1) 0.47
Abdominal
 Splenomegaly (> 2 cm) 247/662 (37.3) 216 (36.0) 31 (49.2) 0.04
 Hepatomegaly (> 2 cm) 228/662 (34.4) 197 (32.8) 31 (49.2) 0.009
Neurological
 Impaired consciousness 52/662 (7.9) 43 (7.1) 9 (14.2) 0.046
 Prostration 43/662 (6.5) 37 (6.1) 6 (9.5) 0.31
 Coma 9/662 (1.4) 6 (1.0) 3 (4.7) 0.014
  1. With the exception of age, figures represent numbers with column percentages in parentheses. Denominators are indicated where data are missing; splenomegaly and hepatomegaly were measured from the costal margin in the mid-clavicular line
  2. adefined as > 180 beats per min in children younger than 12 months of age, > 160 beats per min in children 1 to 5 years of age, or > 140 beats per minute in children older than 5 years of age
  3. b > 2 in 24 h; P-values between survivors and deaths were estimated by χ2 tests with the exception of age, which was compared by the Kruskal–Wallis test