Skip to main content

Table 1 Generalized linear mixed-effects model output results. Random effects = household nested within site

From: Variation in Anopheles distribution and predictors of malaria infection risk across regions of Madagascar

Results
  Odds of an individual being RDT + for P. falciparum compared to RDT-(95%CI)
Vatovavy Fitovinany, SE Atsimo Andrefana (Southwest, SW) Atsimo Andrefana (West coast, WC) Amoron’i Mania, HP
Site
 Anopheles mosquitoes present in peridomicile habitat 4.39** (2.92, 6.59) 12.70** (3.33, 48.43) 0.67 (0.38, 1.20) N/A N/A
 > 20 km from urban center 10.00** (5.56, 16.67) 0.69 (0.29, 1.61) 0.47* (0.25, 0.87) 1.03 (0.03, 33.33)
Household
 1-unit increase in count of peridomicile larval habitats 0.95 (0.87, 1.03) 0.97 (0.39, 2.42) 0.91 (0.72, 1.13) 0.73 (0.43, 1.24)
 Distance from household to nearest aquatic agriculture (km) 1.25 (0.80, 1.93) 2.51 (0.24, 26.17) 2.05 (0.85, 4.93) 1.08 (0.10, 11.32)
% of land used as aquatic agriculture 1 km around household 1.01 (0.96, 1.01) 1.10 (0.99, 1.24) 1.01 (1.00, 1.03) 0.89 (0.76, 1.05)
 Head of household high school education 1.20 (0.72, 1.48) 0.85 (0.44, 1.64) 0.54** (0.37, 0.81) 0.28 (0.03, 2.32)
 Household has income source 1.27 (0.82, 2.08) 0.72 (0.32, 1.64) 1.09 (0.72, 1.63) 0.40 (0.04, 4.44)
 Household owns a hamlet 1.20* (1.01, 2.04) N/A N/A 0.13* (0.02, 0.96) N/A N/A
Individual
 Currently using bed net 0.74 (0.37, 1.46) 0.79 (0.39, 1.61) 0.66* (0.44, 0.97) 00.33 (0.00, 99.79)
 Bed net used has holes 1.00 (0.68, 1.46) 0.41 (0.13, 1.26) 0.74 (0.53, 1.03) 69.01 (0.18, 26196.97)
 Ages 5 to 14 1.58** (4.70, 28.57) 1.04E + 10 (1.55E−128,6.91E + 147) 32.22** (7.68, 135.20) 1.07E + 09 N/A
 Ages 15 to 64 1.57** (1.86, 10.94) 2.19E + 09 (3.27E−129, 1.46E + 147) 15.46** (3.70, 64.65) 7.18E + 08 N/A
 Ages 65 + 1.63** (5.30, 36.39) 9.93E + 09 (1.49E−128, 6.62E + 147) 44.07** (10.17, 190.86) 2.05E + 09 N/A
 Male 1.17** (1.27, 2.37) 1.02 (0.54, 1.91) 1.67** (1.28, 2.17) 0.30 (0.03, 2.93
 Observations 1299 906 1252 1205
Random Effects Variance (SD)
 Site 0.82 (0.90) 0.99 (0.99) 0.71 (0.84) 0.79 (0.89)
 Household 1.95E−13 (4.41E−7) 1.06E−13 (3.26E−7) 6.86E−14 (2.62E−7) 3.16E14 (1.78E−7)
  1. Estimates are odds ratios. N/A variables signify those that were not included in models
  2. *p < 0.05, **p < 0.01