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Table 5 Levels of haemoglobin concentration and parasite count influencing detection of parasites antigens in urine and saliva

From: Evaluating the potential of using urine and saliva specimens for malaria diagnosis in suspected patients in Ghana

Parameter Number of respective samples found to contain PfHRP2 and/or pLDH
Blood Urine Saliva χ2 (p-value)
Haemoglobin concentration 29.5 (p < 0.05)
 < 9.9 g/dL n (%) 132 113 (85.6) 123 (93.1)  
 10.0–12.5 g/dL n (%) 170 15 (8.8) 77 (45.2)  
 > 12.5 g/dL n (%) 79 6 (7.5) 17 (21.5)  
Parasite count (/µL of blood) 14.7 (p < 0.05)
 20,001–40,000 51 0 (0.0)a 0 (0.0)a  
 40,001–60,000 46 0 (0.0)a 17 (36.9)a  
 60,001–80,000 57 9 (15.7) 9 (15.7)  
 80,001–100,000 67 13 (19.4) 51 (76.1)  
 100,001–120,000 82 48 (58.5) 71 (86.5)  
 > 120,000 78 64 (82.0) 69 (88.5)  
  1. aExcluded from Chi-square analysis. Percentages indicated for urine and saliva section represent the proportions of Plasmodium antigens in respective specimens with respect to antigens identified in blood specimens for a particular parameter