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Table 2 Risk factors for Plasmodium infection incidence among children aged 5–15 years in Banfora region of Burkina Faso

From: A cohort study to identify risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum infection in Burkinabe children: implications for other high burden high impact countries

Variables Number of children Number of infections Time at risk (years) Rate Univariate analysis Multivariate analysis
IRR (95% CI) P value IRR (95% CI) P value
Age (years)
 5–7 76 164 31.09 5.28   
 8–15 176 386 71.40 5.41 1.02 (0.94–1.12) 0.59   
Gender
 Male 131 288 52.93 5.44   
 Female 121 262 49.56 5.29 0.97 (0.90–1.05) 0.46   
Ethnic group
 Other ethnicity 236 519 95.82 5.42   
 Fulani 16 31 6.66 4.65 0.86 (0.65–1.13) 0.28   
Caregiver’s education
 Illiterate 199 443 80.45 5.51   
 Literate 53 107 22.04 4.86 0.88 (0.76–1.02) 0.09   
Caregiver’s occupation
 Farmer 240 523 97.39 5.37   
 Non farmer 12 27 5.09 5.30 0.99 (0.83–1.18) 0.89   
Religion
 Muslims 170 375 68.97 5.44   
 Christians 33 67 13.93 4.81 0.88 (0.77–1.02) 0.09   
 Animists 49 108 19.58 5.51 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.85   
SES quintile
 Poorest 46 102 20.16 5.06 1.04 (0.99–1.09) 0.14   
 Poor 44 95 18.47 5.14   
 Middle 44 98 18.21 5.38   
 Rich 46 103 19.34 5.33   
 Richest 47 106 17.79 5.96   
SES factor score
 1 unit increase 1.06 (1.01–1.11) 0.03 1.05 (1.00–1.11)* 0.04
Travel history during the study period
 No 246 537 100.93 5.32    
 Yes 6 13 1.55 8.39 1.58 (1.31–1.90)  < 0.001 1.52 (1.45–1.59)$  < 0.001
Slept under bed net previous night
 Yes 203 448 83.55 5.36   
 No 49 102 18.93 5.39 1.00 (0.78–1.29) 0.97   
Number of people sleeping in the child room (including child)
  ≤ 6 55 124 23.10 5.37    
 6 < no. ≤ 12 118 265 46.32 5.72 1.07 (0.94–1.21) 0.33   
  > 12 79 161 33.06 4.87 0.91 (0.79–1.04) 0.16   
Bed net integrity (at final survey in December)
 Good (pHI: 0–64) 155 331 62.63 5.28    
 Damaged (pHI: 65–642) 36 81 15.71 5.16 0.98 (0.83–1.15) 0.76   
 Too torn (pHI: 643 +) 58 134 23.52 5.70 1.08 (0.97–1.20) 0.18   
Used other personal protective measures
 No 184 407 74.64 5.45   
 Yes 58 125 24.53 5.10 0.93 (0.81–1.08) 0.36   
Housing: roof of child’s sleeping room
 Metal 191 420 77.60 5.41    
 Non metal 52 114 21.85 5.22 0.96 (0.85–1.09) 0.57   
Housing: floor of the child’s sleeping room
 Cement/tiles 178 388 72.91 5.32   
 Dirt 65 146 26.54 5.50 1.03 (0.94–1.13) 0.48   
Housing: wall of the child’s sleeping room
 Mud 65 151 26.54 5.69   
 Brick 146 309 59.15 5.22 0.92 (0.83–1.02) 0.12   
 Cement 32 74 13.77 5.37 0.94 (0.83–1.08) 0.39   
Housing: eaves of the child’s sleeping room
 Open 138 299 56.57 5.29    
 Closed 102 229 41.60 5.51 1.04 (0.91–1.20) 0.57   
Cows, horses, sheep or goats within 5 m of child’s home
 Present 169 371 67.80 5.47    
 Absent 80 174 33.51 5.19 0.95 (0.83–1.09) 0.46   
Euclidean distance to the nearest positive aquatic habitat
  <  = 300 m 127 266 51.76 5.14   
 > 300 m 125 284 50.72 5.60 1.09 (1.00–1.19) 0.06   
Distance by road to nearest health centre         
 <  = 2 km 119 252 49.65 5.08   
 > 2 km 133 298 52.83 5.64 1.11 (1.00–1.24) 0.06   
EIR (village-level)         
-   1.00 (1.00–1.00) 0.08   
% mortality in WHO tube test with 0.05% deltamethrin diagnostic dose         
- 1.05 (0.73–1.50) 0.79   
  1. IRR incidence rate ratio, *IRR adjusted for travel history, $IRR adjusted for SES factor score