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Table 5 Factors associated with anaemia at first antenatal clinic attendance in the study area

From: Epidemiology of malaria among pregnant women during their first antenatal clinic visit in the middle belt of Ghana: a cross sectional study

Factors Anaemia COR 95% CI p-value AOR 95% CI p-value
Total (N = 1465)
n
Present (N = 820)
n (%)
Absent (N = 645)
n (%)
Age, years
 < 25 523 337 (64.4) 186 (35.6) 1   < 0.001 1   0.981
 ≥ 25 942 483 (45.2) 459 (48.7) 0.58 0.47–0.72   1.00 0.74–1.34  
Gestation age, weeks
 < 18 986 491 (49.8) 495 (50.2) 1   < 0.001 1   < 0.001
 ≥ 18 464 317 (68.3) 147 (31.7) 2.17 1.72–2.74   2.24 1.75–2.86  
Education
 No education 426 252 (59.2) 174 (40.9) 1   0.121 1   0.415
 Primary 249 139 (55.8) 110 (44.2) 0.87 0.64–1.20   0.80 0.57–1.13  
 Junior high 486 276 (56.8) 210 (43.2) 0.91 0.70–1.18   0.85 0.62–1.15  
 High school or above 304 153 (50.3) 151 (49.7) 0.70 0.52–0.94   0.74 0.50–1.09  
HH SES
 Most poor 290 180 (62.1) 110 (37.9) 1   < 0.001 1   0.024
 More poor 297 188 (63.3) 109 (36.7) 1.05 0.75–1.47   1.27 0.88–1.83  
 Poor 291 169 (58.1) 122 (41.9) 0.85 0.61–1.18   1.00 0.69–1.46  
 Less poor 291 151 (51.9) 140 (48.1) 0.66 0.47–0.92   0.84 0.57–1.24  
 Least poor 296 132 (44.6) 164 (55.4) 0.49 0.35–0.68   0.69 0.46–1.03  
Marital status
 Married 1075 563 (52.4) 512 (47.6) 1   < 0.001 1   0.015
 Not married 390 257 (65.9) 133 (34.1) 1.76 1.38–2.24   1.44 1.07–1.92  
Profession
 No profession 354 220 (62.2) 134 (37.9) 1   < 0.001 1   0.568
 Professional teacher, clerical, secretary, … 78 31 (39.7) 47 (60.3) 0.40 0.24–0.66   0.85 0.47–1.52  
 Trader, food seller 442 227 (51.4) 215 (48.6) 0.64 0.48–0.85   1.04 0.75–1.44  
 Seamstress, hairdresser, 233 123 (52.8) 110 (47.2) 0.68 0.49–0.95   0.80 0.55–1.16  
 Farmer/labourer 311 188 (60.5) 123 (39.6) 0.93 0.68–1.27   1.07 0.74–1.55  
 Other 47 31 (66.0) 16 (34.0) 1.18 0.62–2.24   1.28 0.64–2.55  
Religion
 Christian 1077 589 (54.7) 488 (45.3) 1   0.184    
 Muslim 324 190 (58.6) 134 (41.4) 1.17 0.91–1.51  
 Others 64 41 (64.1) 23 (35.9) 1.48 0.87–2.50  
Gravidity
 Primigravidae 327 218 (66.7) 109 (33.3) 1   < 0.001 1   0.023
 Secundigravidae 337 195 (57.9) 142 (42.1) 0.69 0.50–0.94   0.79 0.56–1.11  
 Multigravidae 801 407 (50.8) 394 (49.2) 0.52 0.39–0.68   0.61 0.42–0.87  
ITN use
 No 964 532 (55.2) 432 (44.8) 1   0.401
 Yes 501 288 (57.5) 213 (42.5) 0.91 0.73–1.13  
Malaria Parasitaemia
 None 1182 592 (50.1) 590 (49.9) 1   < 0.001 1   < 0.001
 Low/very low 209 166 (79.4) 43 (20.6) 3.85 2.70–5.48   3.49 2.41–5.05  
 Medium/high 74 62 (83.8) 12 (16.2) 5.15 2.75–9.65   4.05 2.11–7.78  
  1. HH SES: Household socio-economic status; ITN: Insecticide-treated bednet