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Table 1 Effect of topical application of Tenebenal™ and two standard comparators on adult female Anopheles gambiae

From: Tenebenal: a meta-diamide with potential for use as a novel mode of action insecticide for public health

Strain Insecticide Concentration 30 min 24 h 48 h 72 h
KD (%) Breakpoint (%) Mortality (%) Breakpoint (%) Mortality (%) Breakpoint (%) Mortality (%) Breakpoint (%)
Kisumu Tenebenal™ 0.00000625% 100.0  < 0.00000625 66.7 0.000025 60.0 0.00000125 63.3 0.00000125
0.00000125% 88.0 73.3 80.0 80.0
0.000025% 88.4 83.9 96.8 100.0
0.00005% 100.0 96.7 100.0 100.0
0.0001% 91.7 96.6 96.6 96.6
Etofenprox 0.0001% 87.1  < 0.0001 50.0 0.001 53.6 0.001 53.6 0.001
0.001% 95.9 82.8 89.7 86.2
0.01% 96.0 93.3 96.7 96.7
0.10% 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1% 100.0 100.0 96.7 96.7
Deltamethrin 0.0001% 100.0  < 0.0001 100.0  < 0.0001 100.0  < 0.0001 100.0  < 0.0001
0.001% 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
0.01% 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
0.10% 100.0 100.0 96.6 100.0
1% 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
Tiassalé 2 Tenebenal™ 0.00000625% 6.7  > 0.0001 96.7  < 0.00000625 96.7  < 0.00000625 96.7  < 0.00000625
0.00000125% 36.7 96.7 100.0 100.0
0.000025% 17.4 90.0 96.7 96.7
0.00005% 18.5 97.0 100.0 100.0
0.0001% 23.3 86.7 100.0 100.0
Etofenprox 0.0001% 11.1 1 14.4 1 14.4 0.1 14.4 0.1
0.001% 56.7 13.3 26.7 23.3
0.01% 71.9 51.9 62.2 58.5
0.1% 66.7 70.0 80.0 80.0
1% 89.3 92.6 92.6 92.6
Deltamethrin 0.0001% 65.9 0.001 13.7 0.1 16.7 0.01 20.0 0.01
0.001% 85.6 57.4 46.7 46.7
0.01% 74.1 74.1 85.2 96.3
0.1% 90.0 100.0 100.0 100.0
1% 96.7 100.0 100.0 100.0
  1. Efficacy was tested against Kisumu (insecticide susceptible) and Tiassalé 2 (resistant) strains. KD and mortality was observed 30 min and 24, 48 and 72 h after topical application, respectively, and were corrected for negative control mortality using Abbott’s formula where mortality was greater than 5%. The breakpoint at each observation point denotes the lowest concentration at which the 80% mortality threshold, the measure of efficacy given by WHO for IRS formulations, was reached