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Fig. 4 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 4

From: The Gini coefficient as a useful measure of malaria inequality among populations

Fig. 4

Local inter-village heterogeneity in malaria prevalence varies over time and shows seasonality captured by the Gini coefficient. Temporal variation is analysed in data from successive community surveys during the pre-intervention phase of The Garki Project, a classic epidemiological study previously conducted in a rural district in northern Nigeria. a Malaria parasite slide positive prevalence data were obtained from 8 cross-sectional surveys conducted 10 weeks apart (spanning approximately 70 weeks in total). Annual peak of infection prevalence was seen during and immediately following the rainy season (survey 5 and 6), and lower prevalence is evident during and immediately following the dry season (surveys 2 and 3 for 1 year, surveys 7 and 8 for the following year). Data are shown for the 16 villages that had surveys at all 8 timepoints (data from a total of 5797 participants were included). Prevalence data were extracted from The Garki Project archived database (https://garkiproject.nd.edu/) and are shown in Additional file 1: Table S5. b Gini coefficients representing the extent of inter-village heterogeneity in malaria in each of the surveys with bootstrap confidence intervals. Overall variation among the villages was moderately low, with a peak G = 0.17, showing significant seasonal variation in Gini coefficients as more inequality occurred in the dry season

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