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Table 3 Secondary hole damage morphologies identified in LLINs

From: Textile testing to assess the resistance to damage of long-lasting insecticidal nets for malaria control and prevention

Type of damage Damage morphology Mechanism
Laddering Enlargement of an initial hole by pulling out of successive knitted loops in the LLIN fabric structure following yarn breakage
Unravelling Enlargement of an initial hole by unlooping of the yarns in the knitted LLIN fabric structure following initial yarn breakage
Secondary tearing Tensile breakage of yarns within the fabric plane, in one or more directions. For example, after the LLIN is caught on a solid pointed object and then pulled in a perpendicular direction