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Table 7 Environmental variables and distribution of Anopheles larvae at Ghibe River basin (November 2014–October 2016)

From: Anopheles larval species composition and characterization of breeding habitats in two localities in the Ghibe River Basin, southwestern Ethiopia

Environmental factorsAn. gambiae (s. l.)An. christyiAn. pharoensis
Mean rankUpMean rankUpMean rankUp
Habitat permanence
 Temporary81.6931370.45579.92960.50.019*81.4631150.047*
 Permanent87.37  89.96  87.69  
Presence of algae
 Present90.0828080.23591.562722.50.0984.853111.50.686
 Absent80.77  79.98  83.55  
Surface debris
 Absent90.2121170.009*79.0522670.00*83.2327460.429
 Present68.6  96.27  85.92  
Intensity of light
 Shade41.52280.028*744230.3693.42426.50.237
 Lit85.58  84.37  83.65  
 An. gambiae (s.l.)An. christyiAn. pharoensis
Mean rankχ2dfpMean rankχ2dfpMean rankχ2dfp
Water perimeter (m)
 < 10 m85.965.1720.07583.452.1320.34381.368.7420.00*
 10–100 m83.3   90.88   83.23   
 > 100 m40.25   74   150   
Turbidity
 Low87.310.5820.74890.335.3420.0685.711.9520.376
 Medium80.54   79.9   85   
 High83.78   80.67   80.69   
Distance to nearest house (m)
 ≤ 10094.6210.5730.014*76.0424.9130.00*81.144.5730.206
 101–20082.36   83.41   88.31   
 201–30063.26   99.83   84.69   
 301–40060.9   116.33   79   
Canopy cover
 Open89.757.95520.019*84.420.45420.79781.549.46920.009*
 Tree64.32   83.36   92.86   
 Shrub83.33   74   79   
Emergent plant
 Absent93.228.6530.034*82.337.5430.05781.2911.8430.008*
 Grass71.81   91.57   80.28   
 Weeds89   82.3   86.75   
 Grass + weeds68.9   73.5   95.6   
Substrate type
 Gravel71.692.06620.35694.4421.0620.00*84.030.83820.658
 Mud87.37   77.66   84.81   
 Stone78.42   100.24   81.3   
  1. *Statistically significant at p < 0.05
  2. Df degree of freedom