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Table 5 Prevalence of Pfk13, Pfmdr1, and Plasmepsin-2 polymorphisms in day 0 samples (subset of day 0 ACPR and all day 0 reinfection samples) and day 0 samples for recrudescences, Burkina Faso therapeutic efficacy study, 2017–2018

From: Anti-malarial efficacy and resistance monitoring of artemether-lumefantrine and dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine shows inadequate efficacy in children in Burkina Faso, 2017–2018

Polymorphism All day 0 samples Reinfection (day 0) + ACPR Recrudescent (day 0)a pb
n Total Samples Percent (%) n Total samples Percent (%) n Total samples Percent (%)
Pfk13
 Samples successfully sequenced 367 373 98.4 265 270 98.1 102 103 99.0
 Wild type (no mutations detected) 352 367 95.9 257 265 97.0 95 102 93.1 Ref
 Mutantc 15 367 4.1 8 265 3.0 7 102 6.9 0.14
Pfmdr1 codon 86
 Samples successfully sequenced 318 362 87.8 228 251 90.8 90 94 95.7
 N86 303 318 95.3 215 228 94.3 88 90 97.8 Ref
 86Y 10 318 3.1 8 228 3.5 2 90 2.2 0.73
 N/Y (mixed infection) 5 318 1.6 5 228 2.2 0 90 0.0 0.33
Pfpm2 copy number (DP arm only)
 Samples successfully sequenced 131 136 96.3 105 109 96.3 26 27 96.3
 < 1.5 93 131 71.0 74 105 70.5 19 26 73.1 1.00
 ≥ 1.5 38 131 29.0 31 105 29.5 7 26 26.9  
 < 2 106 131 80.9 85 105 81.0 21 26 80.8 1.00
 ≥ 2 25 131 19.1 20 105 19.0 5 26 19.2  
 < 2.5 110 131 84.0 88 105 83.8 22 26 84.6 1.00
 ≥ 2.5 21 131 16.0 17 105 16.2 4 26 15.4  
 < 3 116 131 88.5 94 105 89.5 22 26 84.6 0.50
 ≥ 3 15 131 11.5 11 105 10.5 4 26 15.4  
 Geometric Mean (SD) 1.39 (1.66)    1.40 (1.66)    1.34 (1.72)    0.78
Pfmdr1 copy number (AL arm only)
 Samples successfully sequenced 235 237 99.2 159 161 98.8 76 76 100  
 < 1.5 183 235 77.9 125 159 78.6 58 76 76 0.74
 ≥ 1.5 52 235 22.1 34 159 21.4 18 76 24  
 < 2 205 235 87.2 139 159 87.4 66 76 87 1
 ≥ 2 30 235 12.8 20 159 12.6 10 76 13  
 < 2.5 213 235 90.6 143 159 89.9 70 76 92 0.76
 ≥ 2.5 22 235 9.4 16 159 10.1 6 76 8  
 < 3 225 235 95.7 151 159 95.0 74 76 97 0.51
 ≥ 3 10 235 4.3 8 159 5.0 2 76 3  
 Geometric mean 1.21 (1.54)    1.20 (1.55)    1.24 (1.51)    0.38
  1. aIncludes recrudescent samples from 42 days of follow up for both arms
  2. bFisher's exact test for proportions; independent t-test for means; comparison between reinfection plus adequate clinical and parasitological response (ACPR) versus recrudescent samples
  3. cMutations include: C469C, E509E, E567E, G496G, V589V, R561R, N629Y, A578S, V517I, and V589A