Skip to main content

Table 1 Characteristics of study participants

From: Genetic variation in the immune system and malaria susceptibility in infants: a nested case–control study in Nanoro, Burkina Faso

Variables Malaria infection Clinical malaria
Cases (527) Controls (129) P-value Cases (N = 411) Controls (N = 245) P-value
Maternal characteristics
 Age (years, mean ± SD) 26.5 ± 6.3 26.2 ± 6.2 0.641 26.4 ± 6.2 26.4 ± 6.3 0.988
Gravidity (no. (%))    0.176    0.250
  Primigravida 88 (16.7) 25 (19.4)   69 (16.8) 44 (18.0)  
  Secundigravida 92 (17.5) 14 (10.8)   74 (18.0) 32 (13.0)  
  Multigravida 347 (65.8) 90 (69.8)   268 (65.2) 169 (69.0)  
 MiP preventive strategy
  Standard IPTp-SP 262 (49.7) 70 (54.3) 0.355 212 (51.6) 120 (49.0) 0.520
  CSST/IPTp-SP 265 (50.3) 59 (45.7)   199 (48.4) 125 (51.0)  
 SP doses uptake
  < 3 doses 283 (53.7) 52 (40.3) 0.006 223 (54.3) 112 (45.7) 0.034
  ≥ 3 doses 244 (46.3) 77 (59.7)   188 (45.7) 133 (54.3)  
 ITN usagea 413 (78.4) 108 (83.7) 0.152 326 (79.3) 195 (79.6) 0.934
 Infant’s characteristics
Birth season [no. in malaria high-transmission season (%)] 323 (61.3) 84 (65.1) 0.422 242 (58.9) 165 (67.4) 0.031
 Gender [no. females (%)] 272 (51.6) 64 (49.6) 0.684 201 (48.9) 135 (55.1) 0.125
 LBW (< 2500 g) (no. (%)) 45 (8.5) 6 (4.6) 0.140 40 (9.7) 11 (4.5) 0.015
 PME (no. (%))     < 0.001    0.021
  Active PM 113 (23.7) 16 (13.8)   87 (23.1) 42 (19.4)  
  Past PM 223 (46.8) 43 (37.0)   177 (47.1) 89 (41.0)  
  MPI 53 (11.1) 19 (16.4)   47 (12.5) 25 (11.5)  
  Non-exposed 88 (18.4) 38 (32.8)   65 (17.3) 61 (28.1)  
 Ethnicity [no. (%)]    0.443    0.410
  Mossi 471 (89.4) 122 (94.6)   366 (89.1) 227 (92.7)  
  Gourounsi 52 (9.9) 6 (4.6)   42 (10.2) 16 (6.5)  
  Fulani 3 (0.6) 1 (0.8)   2 (0.5) 2 (0.8)  
Samo 1 (0.2) 0 (0.0)   1 (0.2) 0 (0.0)  
 Haemoglobinb
  AA 293 (56.8) 75 (58.6) 0.960 235 (58.3) 133 (55.2) 0.428
  AC 137 (26.5) 34 (26.6)   100 (24.8) 71 (29.5)  
  AS 67 (13.0) 16 (12.5)   53 (13.2) 30 (12.4)  
  SC 12 (2.3) 2 (1.5)   8 (2.0) 6 (2.5)  
  SS 7 (1.4) 1 (0.8)   7 (1.7) 1 (0.4)  
  1. PME prenatal malaria exposure, PM Placental malaria, MPI maternal peripheral infection during pregnancy, IPTp-SP Intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine, CSST/IPTp-SP community based-scheduled screening and treatment of malaria in addition to the standard IPTp-SP
  2. aITN usage the last night before delivery
  3. bHaemoglobin genotyping was successful for 644 (98.2%) with a total of 516 infants who experienced P. falciparum infection while 403 developed a clinical case
\