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Table 1 Annual prevalence of Plasmodium and Haemoproteus by PCR in penguins

From: Vector incrimination and transmission of avian malaria at an aquarium in Japan: mismatch in parasite composition between mosquitoes and penguins

Year Number of samples Plasmodium Haemoproteus
Number positive Prevalence (%) Number positive Prevalence (%)
2012 47 2 4.26 0 0
2013 33 0 0 0 0
2014 33 1 3.03 1 3.03
2015 35 0 0 2 5.71
2016 45 0 0 2 4.44
2017 29 1 3.45 0 0
2018 46 1 2.17 3 6.52
  1. Duplicate samples from the same individual in the same year have been removed