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Table 3 PCR results of Plasmodium spp. detection and Minimum Infection Rate (MIR) in Mosquitoes

From: Vector incrimination and transmission of avian malaria at an aquarium in Japan: mismatch in parasite composition between mosquitoes and penguins

Year Species Total specimens Head-thorax Abdomen Whole body Lineagesd
No. pools No. positive MIR (± 95% CI) No. positive MIR (± 95% CI) No. positive MIR (± 95% CI) CXPIP09 PADOM02 Others
2011a Cx. pipiens group 413 413 13 31.48 (17.67–51.83) 16 38.74 (23.15–60.78) 22 53.27 (34.58–78.19) ht(2), ab(7), ht-ab(6) ht(1), ab(1) htCXPIP09-abPADOM02(1)
htPADOM02-abCXPIP09(1)
htSPHUM05(2)
2012b Cx. pipiens group 329 63 7 20.79 (9.27–40.63) 26 79.03 (53.44–111.99) ht(5), ab(21) ht(2), ab(5)  
2013b Cx. pipiens group 220 50 5 23.56 (8.84–51.47) 8 36.36 (17.14–67.7) ht(1), ab(5) ht(3), ab(3) htSPHUM05(1)
2014b Cx. pipiens group 142 43 1 7.05 (0.41–33.79) 8 56.34 (26.68–103.88) ht(1), ab(4) ab(4)  
2018c Cx. pipiens group 901 22 24.42 (15.77–36.11) whole(13) whole(9)  
Cx. tritaeniorhynchus 30 2 33.33 (1.92–150.09) whole(1)   GALLUS02(1)
  1. ht: detection from the head-thorax; ab: detection from the abdomen
  2. aAll mosquitoes were tested individually upon dissection
  3. bHead-thorax were pooled and abdomen were individually tested
  4. cAll mosquitoes were tested individually without dissection
  5. dNumbers in parentheses represent numbers of positive samples