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Table 1 Previous studies about the efficacy of mosquito repellents, repellent-based controlled release devices and repellent-based products available on the market against mosquitoes

From: Mosquito‐repellent controlled‐release formulations for fighting infectious diseases

Controlled-release devices Polymeric material Repellent Preparation method Reference
Microporous polymer
 Microporous polymer HDPE/EVA DEET TIPS method by Electrospining [13]
 Microporous polymer LLDPE and EVA/clay nanocomposite DEET and Icaridin Thermally Induced Phase Separation method [14]
 Microporous polymer LLDPE Citronellal Thermally Induced Phase Separation method [117]
 Microporous polymer PLA DEET Thermally Induced Phase Separation method [123]
 Microporous polymer Cellulose acetate or polyvinylpyrrolidone micro/nanofibrous matrices Citronella (Cymbopogon nardus) oil Electrospining [177]
 Microporous polymer Bio-degradable polymer (PLA/PBAT) Pine (Pinus sylvestris) essential oil Thermally Induced Phase Separation method [178]
Nanoemulsions/microemulsion
 Nanoemulsion Montanov®82 (a mixture of cetearyl alcohol and cocoyl glucoside) Citronella (C. nardus) oil High-pressure homogenization [56]
 Nanoemulsion Montanov®82 (a mixture of cetearyl alcohol and cocoyl glucoside) Citronella (C. nardus) oil, hairy basil (Ocimum americanum) oil and vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides) oil High-pressure homogenization [55]
 Nanoemulsion Tween 20 [polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monolaurate] Neem seed (Azadirachta indica) oil Ultrasonication [50]
 Nanoemulsion Sorbitane trioleate and polyoxyethylene (20) oleyl ether with mean HLB number 1.8 and 15.0 D-limonene Ultrasonication [179]
 Nanoemulsion Tween 80 (HLB = 15) and SPAN 80 (HLB = 4.3) Citronella (C. nardus) oil Ultrasonication [57]
 Nanoemulsion Polyethylene glycol sorbitan monooleate (Tween® 80) and sorbitan monooleate (Span® 80) Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) oil Ultrasonication [180]
 Nanoemulsion EL-20, EL-40, EL-60, and EL-80 [polyoxyethylene (20, 40, 60, and 80) D-limonene Phase transition composition [58]
 Nanoemulsion Poloxamer 407 Eugenol and thymol High-energy stirring [61]
 Polymeric microcapsules Gelatin and Gum arabic Citronella (C. nardus) oil Complex coacervation [31]
 Polymeric microcapsules Copolymer poly(maleic anhydride-st-methyl vinyl ether − MAMVE) Jojoba (Simmondsia chinensis) oil Interfacial polycondensation [181]
 Polymeric microcapsules Gelatin and ethyl cellulose Zanthoxylum limonella oil Emulsion solvent evaporation [182]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polysaccharide DEET Interfacial precipitation [37]
 Polymeric microcapsules Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) DEET Interfacial polymerization [36]
 Polymeric microcapsules Gelatin and Gum arabic Citronella (C. nardus) oil Complex coacervation [32]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polyurethane Citronella (C. nardus) oil Interfacial polymerization [30]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polyvinyl alcohol (PVA), gum arabic (GA) and whey protein isolate/maltodextrin (WPI/MD) Neem seed (A. indica) oil Spray drying [28]
 Polymeric microcapsules Acacia gum Citronella (C. nardus) oil Spray drying [183]
 Polymeric microcapsules Gelatin Citronella (C. nardus) oil Simple coacervation [33]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polyurethane DEET Interfacial polycondensation [44]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polyester Citronella (C. nardus) oil Complex coacervation [43]
 Polymeric nano/microcapsules Ethyl cellulose shell Limonene Simple coacervation [34]
 Polymeric microcapsules Cetyl alcohol core/PEG 3350 and carboxymethylcellulose wall DEET and Essential (Alpinia galangal, Citrus grandis and Citrus aurantifolia) oil Interfacial polymerization [184]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polyurea and Polyurethane DEET Interfacial polymerization [185]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polyurea (PU) and poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) DEET Interfacial polymerization and Solvent evaporation [186]
 Polymeric microcapsules Polysaccharides DEET Interfacial precipitation [38]
 Polymeric microcapsules Carboxymethylated Tamarind Gum Citronella (C. nardus) oil Spray drying [29]
Solid Lipid Nanoparticles
 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Compritol 888 ATO as lipid and Poloxamer 188 Essential Oil High-pressure homogenization [71]
 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Tween® 20 DEET Melt-dispersion [70]
 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Polyethylene glycol (PEG) Garlic (Allium sativum) essential oil Melt-dispersion [72]
 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Tween® 80 (polysorbate 80, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) Geranium (Pelargonium graveolens) essential oil Ultrasonic-solvent emulsification [68]
 Solid Lipid Nanoparticles Tween® 80 (polysorbate 80, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate) Geranium (P. graveolens) essential oil Ultrasonic-solvent emulsification [66]
Cyclodextrins
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Citrus sinensis essential oil (CSEO) Paste complexation and Co-precipitation [83]
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Citronella (C. nardus) oil, Citronellal and Citronellol Kneading [86]
 Cyclodextrin γ-cyclodextrin DEET Paste complexation [187]
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Thyme (Thymus vulgaris) oil Mixing and heating, [188]
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Limonene Conventional impregnation
and coating
[80]
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Geraniol and Linalool Physical mixture, Slurry complexation and Paste complexation [189]
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Carvacrol and Linalool Kneading [190]
 Cyclodextrin β-cyclodextrin Citronella (C. nardus) oil Mixing and heating [88]
 Polymeric micelles Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F127)a Essential oil components (EOCs) High-energy stirring [79]
 Polymeric micelles Poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) Diethylphenylacetamide (DEPA) Polymerization followed by Phase Inversion Temperature (PIT) emulsification method [78]
 Polymeric micelles Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F127) DEET High-speed Homogenizer [77]
 Polymeric micelles Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic® F127) IR3535 High-speed Homogenizer [191]
  1. *The repellents-based on controlled release formulations were prepared in the laboratory and evaluated against different species of mosquitoes. Therefore, the manufacture names were provided only for the repellents-products or wearable devices commercially available on the market.
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