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Table 2 Controlled-release systems of mosquito repellent actives, polymeric material, mosquito repellent, and their preparation method

From: Mosquito‐repellent controlled‐release formulations for fighting infectious diseases

Mosquitoes Product, active ingredient
and concentration
Protection (%) Repellency time (h) Manufacturer References
Culex quinquefasciatus Citriodiol® (30 %) based repellent (Mosiguard®) 100 3 Mosi-guard [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Citronella KAPS® > 84 4 KAPS Mosquito Repellent Patch 12 s [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Citronella MozAway® > 84 4 MozAway [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Citronella BioZ Natural® > 81 4 BioZ Natural [184]
Aedes aegypti Citronellal > 71 1 * [192]
A. aegypti Citronellol > 77 1 * [192]
A. aegypti Geraniol 78 1 * [192]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated formulation of Essential oil (Citrus aurantifolia) 20 % > 85 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (C. aurantifolia) 15 % > 84 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (C. aurantifolia) 10 % > 75 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (C. aurantifolia) 5 % > 63 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Non-encapsulated of Essential oil (C. aurantifolia 20 % > 71 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Essential oil (Citrus grandis) 20 % microencapsuled > 86 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Essential oil (C.s grandis) 15 % microencapsuled > 83 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Essential oil (C. grandis) 10 % micrencapsulated > 74 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Essential oil (C. grandis) 5 % micrencapsulated > 65 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Non-encapsulated of Essential oil (C. grandis) 20 % > 72 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (Alpinias galanga) 20 % > 88 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (A.s galanga) 15 % > 83 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (A. galanga) 10 % > 76 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated of Essential oil (A. galanga) 5 % > 71 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Non-encapsulated of Essential oil (A. galanga) 20 % > 73 6 * [184]
Anopheles subpictus Essential oil (Zingiber officinale Rosc. 5 mg/m2) > 85 3 * [193]
An. subpictus Essential oil (Rosmarinus officinalis L.5 mg/m2) > 68 3 * [193]
An. subpictus Essential oil (Cymbopogan citrates Stapf. 5 mg/m2) > 74 3 * [193]
An. subpictus Essential oil from (Cinnamomum zeylanicum L.
5 mg/m2)
> 61 3 * [193]
Anopheles darlingi 30 % PMD in ethanol 97 4 * [194]
Aedes ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus 15 % PMD (derived by acid modification of Citronellal) 99 5 * [194]
A. aegypti Hazomalania voyronii fresh bark essential oil (EO) 100 % > 82 0.5 * [195]
C. quinquefasciatus Boesenbergia rotunda oil 10 % - 4 * [196]
C. quinquefasciatus Curcuma zedoaria oil 10 % - 3 * [196]
C. quinquefasciatus Zingiber cassumunar oil 10 % - 2 * [196]
C. quinquefasciatus L. petiolata oil 10 % - 3 * [196]
A. aegypti Hazomalania voyronii fresh bark essential oil (EO) 50 % > 78 0.5 * [195]
C. quinquefasciatus H. voyronii fresh bark essential oil (EO) 100 % > 98 0.5 * [195]
Aedes albopictus Citronella oil 5 % > 57 2 * [197]
A. aegypti Citrodiol into the ethylcellulose nanofibrous 100 816 * [198]
Culex tritaeniorhynchus Essential oil (Z. officinale Rosc. 5 mg/m2) > 88 3 * [193]
C. tritaeniorhynchus Essential oil (R. officinalis L.5 mg/m2) > 71 3 * [193]
C. tritaeniorhynchus Essential oil (C. citrates Stapf. 5 mg/m2) > 79 3 * [193]
C. tritaeniorhynchus Essential oil from (C. zeylanicum L.
5 mg/m2)
> 64 3 * [193]
An. darlingi 15 % DEET in Ethanol 85 4 * [194]
A. ochlerotatus taeniorhynchus 15 % DEET in Ethanol 92 5 * [194]
C. quinquefasciatus 20 % DEET - 4 * [196]
A. aegypti 20 % DEET - 4 * [196]
Anopheles gambiae and C. quinquefasciatus DEET-treated nets (DEET-TN) - 1008 * [199]
A. albopictus Skinsations® Spray-DEET 7 % - 5 Spectrum Division of United Industries Corporation [200]
A. albopictus Off! Spray DEET 15 % - > 7 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [200]
A. aegypti DEET 20 % > 82 5 * [201]
Aedes communis DEET (The amount was not specified) 98 4 * [202]
A. communis DEET (The amount was not specified) 74 6 * [202]
A. communis DEET (The amount was not specified) 56 8 * [202]
A. communis DEET + AI3-37220 (The amount was not specified) 98 4 * [202]
A. communis DEET + AI3-37220 (The amount was not specified) 95 6 * [202]
A. communis DEET + AI3-37220 (The amount was not specified) 76 8 * [202]
A. aegypti OFF! Deep Woods-DEET 23.8 % - > 5 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [203]
A. aegypti Sawyer Controlled Release®-DEET 20 % - > 3 Sawyer [203]
A. aegypti OFF! Skintastic-DEET 6.65 % - > 1 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [203]
A. aegypti OFF! Skintastic for Kids-DEET 4.75 % - > 1 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [203]
A. aegypti DEET 25 % 100 6 * [204]
A. aegypti DEET 25 % + Vanillin 5 % 100 6 * [204]
A. aegypti DEET 20 % in ethanol 100 7 * [204]
A. aegypti DEET 20 % in ethanol 100 8 * [205]
Aedes vigilax DEET 34.6 % Army repellent personal > 95 5 * [206]
A. albopictus DEET 10 % 100 4 * [207]
A. albopictus DEET 10 % > 88 6 * [207]
A. albopictus DEET 10 % > 77 8 * [207]
A. aegypti DEET 12 % Cream > 96 > 6 * [208]
Anopheles spp. DEET 20 % > 88 4 * [206]
Anopheles spp. DEET 20 % > 74 5 * [206]
An. gambiae DEET 30 % > 88 7 * [209]
Anopheles stephensi DEET 12 % Cream 100 11 * [208]
Anopheles culicifacies DEET 12 % Cream 100 11 * [208]
Anopheles annularis DEET 12 % Cream 100 11 * [208]
An. subpictus DEET 12 % Cream 100 11 * [208]
A. albopictus Insectan Spray DEET 24 % > 90 6 * [210]
Anopheles arabiensis Socks – DEET 20 % > 90 3360 * [13]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated DEET 20 % 98 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated DEET 15 % 95 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated DEET 10 % 85 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Microencapsulated DEET 5 % 83 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus Non-Encapsulated DEET 20 % 91 6 * [184]
C. quinquefasciatus DEET 1 % 90 - * [211]
A. aegypti DEET 1 % 77 - * [211]
A. aegypti OFF Family – DEET < 10 % - 2 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [9]
A. aegypti Repelex – DEET < 10 % - 2 US CHEMCO Supply & Service [9]
A. aegypti Mosquitoff – DEET 10 % - > 2 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [9]
A. aegypti SBP – Icaridin 15 % - 5 Sawyer Products [9]
A. aegypti OFF kids – DEET < 10 % - 2 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [9]
A. aegypti Muriel – DEET < 10 % - 2   [9]
A. aegypti Kor Yor 15® DEET - > 7 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [212]
C. quinquefasciatus Kor Yor 15® DEET - > 7 S.C. Johnson & Son Inc. [212]
An. arabiensis LLDPE strands-DEET 20 % 79 2016 * [14]
An. arabiensis LLDPE strands-DEET 30 % 78 2016 * [14]
An. arabiensis EVA strands-Icaridin 20 % 85 2016 * [14]
An. arabiensis EVA strands-Icaridin 30 % 82 2016 * [14]
A. aegypti DEET 10 % > 83 2 * [195]
C. quinquefasciatus DEET 10 % 100 2 * [195]
A. albopictus DEET 24 % > 90 6 * [197]
A. aegypti Exposis – Icaridin 25 % - 10 Laboratório Osler do Brasil [9]
A. albopictus IR3535 20 % in ethanol solution - 5 * [205]
A. aegypti IR3535 20 % in ethanol solution - > 9 * [205]
A. albopictus IR3535 10 % - > 7 * [205]
Anopheles dirus IR3535 10 % - 8 * [205]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % - > 6 * [205]
C. quinquefasciatus IR3535 10 % - 8 * [205]
An. dirus IR3535 20 % in ethanol solution - > 3 * [205]
C. quinquefasciatus IR3535 20 % in ethanol solution - > 13 * [205]
C. tritaeniorhynchus IR3535 20 % in ethanol solution - > 14 * [205]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % Spray® 95 6 * [205]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % Spray® 90 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % Spray® 85 7 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 15 % Spray® 95 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 15 % Spray® 90 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 15 % Spray® 85 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % Lotion® 95 4 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % Lotion® 90 5 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 10 % Lotion® 85 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 15 % Lotion® 95 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 15 % Lotion® 90 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 15 % Lotion® 85 6 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 20 % Spray® 95 6 * [213]
An. arabiensis IR3535 100 % 62 4 * [10]
An. arabiensis Blend IR3535 75 mol%-nonanoic 100 4 * [10]
A. aegypti IR3535 20 % Spray® 90 7 * [213]
A. aegypti IR3535 20 % Spray® 85 7 * [213]
Aedes spp. Culex spp. IR3535 20 % Pump spray 85 > 7 * [214]
Anopheles spp. IR3535 20 % Pump spray - > 7 * [214]
A. albopictus Icaridin 10 % Autan® spray - > 5 * [200]
A. aegypti Icaridin 10 % Lotion 95 6 * [213]
A. aegypti Icaridin 10 % Lotion 90 7 * [213]
A. aegypti Icaridin 10 % Lotion 85 8 * [213]
A. aegypti Icaridin 20 % Spray 95 6 * [213]
A.aegypti Icaridin 20 % Spray 90 7 * [213]
A. aegypti Icaridin 20 % Spray 85 9 * [213]
An. stephensi Bayrepel 20 % in complex solvent 100 8 * [215]
C. quinquefasciatus Bayrepel 20 % in complex solvent 100 8 * [215]
Culex annulirostris Icaridin® 19.2 % in ethanol Bayrepel Army® ≥ 99 5 * [206]
C. annulirostris Icaridin® 19.2 % in ethanol Bayrepel Army® 85 6 * [206]
Anopheles spp. Icaridin 19.2 % in ethanol Bayrepel Army® >86 6 * [206]
Anopheles spp. Icaridin 19.2 % in ethanol Bayrepel Army® >71 7 * [206]
An. arabiensis LLDPE strands-Icaridin 20 % 79 2016 * [14]
An. arabiensis LLDPE strands-Icaridin 30 % 98 2016 * [14]
An. arabiensis EVA strands-Icaridin 20 % 91 2016 * [14]
An. arabiensis EVA strands-Icaridin 30 % 88 2016 * [14]
A. albopictus Butyl anthranilate (BA) 0.1 % > 53 - * [216]
A. albopictus Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 0.1 % > 38 - * [216]
A. aegypti Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 10 % 100 - * [217]
A. aegypti Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 5 % 90 - * [217]
A. aegypti Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 2 % 78 - * [217]
An. stephensi Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 10 % 96 - * [217]
An. stephensi Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 5 % 80 - * [217]
An. stephensi Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 2 % 68 - * [217]
C. quinquefasciatus Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 10 % 88 - * [217]
C. quinquefasciatus Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 5 % 82 - * [217]
C. quinquefasciatus Ethyl anthranilate (EA) 2 % 64 - * [217]
  1. aPoloxamer 407 is a triblock copolymer consisting of a central hydrophobic block of polypropylene glycol flanked by two hydrophilic blocks of polyethylene glycol (PEG)