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Fig. 3 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 3

From: IFN-λ4 genetic variants influence clinical malaria episodes in a cohort of Kenyan children

Fig. 3

Frequency and time to first Malaria episodes in relation to IFNL4-rs368234815 polymorphism. The 122 study subjects were grouped based on presence of a IFNL4-dG allele, dG/dG and dG/TT genotypes (n = 95) and compared with children that did not carry a dG allele, TT/TT genotype (n = 27). a Histograms showing the distribution of malaria episodes in the study population during the first 2 years of life presented based on IFNL4-rs368234815 polymorphism. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of malaria episodes is included. After accounting for the number of visits, cases of malaria were found to be 38.75% lower for those with the IFNL4- TT/TT genotype relative to those that had a IFNL4-dG allele (95% CI −66.70%, 10.14%; p-value: 0.111). b Kaplan–Meier survival curve showing time to first malaria episode based on IFNL4-rs368234815 polymorphism. Earlier timing of the first malaria infection was associated with IFNL4-dG allele (p-value: 0.019) as compared to children with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype. c Forest plot showing the results of a Cox proportional hazard model that takes into consideration the effect of two genetic traits that are known to be associated with resistance to blood stage malaria infection, G6PDd and sickle cell, on time to first episode. Adjustments for gravidity and maternal malaria exposure did not improve model fit, so they were not included for Cox proportional hazards model. Hazard ratios are reported along with confidence intervals and p-values for IFNL4 (dG allele, dG/dG and dG/TT genotypes and TT allele, TT/TT genotype), G6PD alleles and sickle cell genotypes. A significant hazard ratio (p-value: 0.021) is observed for the IFNL4 genotype, indicating reduced malaria risk for those with the IFNL4-TT/TT genotype

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