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Table 2 Definitions of terminology used based on WHO [20, 21]

From: Malaria in Eswatini, 2012–2019: a case study of the elimination effort

Type of malaria Description
Surveillance (elimination programmes) That part of the programme designed for the identification, investigation and elimination of continuing transmission, the prevention and cure of infections, and final substantiation of claimed elimination
Confirmed case A malaria case or infection in which the parasite has been detected in a diagnostic test, i.e., microscopy, a rapid diagnostic test, or a molecular diagnostic test
Presumed case A malaria case suspected of being malaria is not confirmed by a diagnostic test
Active case detection Detection by health workers of malaria cases at community and household levels, sometimes in population groups that are considered at high risk
Passive case detection Detection of malaria cases among patients who, on their initiative, visit health services for diagnosis and treatment, usually for a febrile illness case
Confirmed case Malaria case (or infection) in which the parasite has been detected in a diagnostic test, i.e., microscopy, a rapid diagnostic test, or a molecular diagnostic test
Indigenous case A case contracted locally with no evidence of importation and no direct link to transmission from an imported case
Introduced case A case contracted locally, with strong epidemiological evidence linking it directly to a known imported case (first-generation local transmission)
Imported case Malaria case or infection in which the infection was acquired outside the area in which it is diagnosed
Autochthonous A case locally acquired by mosquito-borne transmission, i.e., indigenous or introduced case (also called ‘locally transmitted’)