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Table 2 Risk factors associated with asymptomatic carriage of malaria parasites among pregnant women surveyed at the household level in Burkina Faso in 2013/2014

From: Asymptomatic malaria and anaemia among pregnant women during high and low malaria transmission seasons in Burkina Faso: household-based cross-sectional surveys in Burkina Faso, 2013 and 2017

Potential factors N MiP cases Univariate analysis Multivariable analysis
PR (95% CI) p Adj. PR (95% CI) p
Age     < 0.001a   < 0.001a
 ≥ 30 468 59 1   1  
 20–30 380 122 1.13 (0.84–1.51)   1.07 (0.80–1.38)  
 ≤ 20 859 90 1.88 (1.39–2.53)   1.57 (1.04–2.38)  
Trimester of pregnancy     0.08   0.13
 First 404 77 1    
 Second 731 115 0.83 (0.64–1.07)   0.88 (0.68–1.14)  
 Third 573 79 0.72 (0.54–0.96)   0.77 (0.58–1.02)  
Parity     < 0.001a   0.63
 Multigravida 1039 138 1   1  
 Secundigravida 314 62 1.31 (1.00–1.73)   1.10 (0.80–1.49)  
 Primigravida 354 71 1.70 (1.32–2.20)   1.21 (0.83–1.76)  
Insecticide‑treated nets     0.99   0.88
 At least one 1650 262 1   1  
 No insecticide-treated nets 57 9 0.99 (0.54–1.83)   0.89 (0.50–1.61)  
Education     0.56   0.86
 No education 1693 268 1   1  
 Educated 14 3 1.35 (0.49–3.71)   1.24 (0.46–3.33)  
Household socioeconomic     0.90   0.85
 Middle quintile 352 52 1   1  
 Poorest 300 51 1.15 (0.81–1.64)   1.10 (0.78–1.55)  
 Poor 364 57 1.06 (0.75–1.49)   1.05 (0.75–1.48)  
 Rich 338 51 1.02 (0.71–1.45)   1.05 (0.74–1.49)  
 Richest 354 60 1.14 (0.81–1.61)   1.18 (0.84–1.65)  
Place of residence     0.84   0.91
 Rural 1586 251 1   1  
 Urban 120 20 1.05 (0.69–1.58)   0.96 (0.64–1.43)  
Malaria season     < 0.001a   < 0.001a
 Low season 1222 155 1   1  
 High season 485 116 1.89 (1.52–2.34)   1.85 (1.49–2.29)  
  1. PR prevalence ratio, Adj. adjusted, MiP malaria in pregnancy, aSignificant at the 0.05 level