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Table 1 Demographic and clinical characteristics of 762 in-patients, Uganda

From: Quality of care for adult in-patients with malaria in a tertiary hospital in Uganda

Characteristic Anti-malarial Use during the Current Hospitalization
Yes No Overall
Age, yearsa 27 (21–35) 30 (25–43) 30 (24–42)
Length of hospital stay, daysa 4 (3–5) 4 (3–6) 4 (3–6)
Patient-days of observation 454 3287 3741
Extent of anti-malarial use Anti-malarial Use during the Current Hospitalization, n (%)
Yes No Total
Pre-admission anti-malarials 97 (13) 665 (87) 762
In-hospital anti-malarials 100 (13) 662 (87) 762
Pre-admission anti-malarials 38 (38) 62 (62) 100
Pre-/in-hospital co-trimoxazole 15 (15) 85 (85) 100
In-hospital antibiotics 61 (61) 39 (39) 100
In-hospital antiretrovirals 14 (14) 86 (86) 100
Pre-/in-hospital anti-malarials 159 (21) 603 (79) 762
Subgroup analyses on key variables Anti-malarial Use, n (%) Single factor analysis
Yes No Total, [% col]b ORc 95% CId for OR P-value
Gender
 Male 20 ( 9) 208 (91) 228 [30] 1.0   
 Female 80 (15) 454 (85) 534 [70] 1.8 1.09–3.07 0.022
Ward
 Gynaecological (GYN) 25 (13) 166 (87) 191 [25] 1.0   
 Infectious Diseases and Gastrointestinal Illnesses (IDGI) 57 (18) 263 (82) 320 [42] 1.4 0.87–2.39 0.161
 Haematology, Neurology and Endocrinology (HNE) 12 (10) 105 (90) 117 [15] 0.8 0.37–1.58 0.459
 Cardiovascular, Pulmonology and Nephrology (CPN) 6 ( 4) 128 (96) 134 [18] 0.3 0.12–0.78 0.013
Number of working diagnoses
 One 21 (15) 122 (85) 143 [18] 1.0   
 Two 26 (13) 177 (87) 203 [27] 0.9 0.46–1.59 0.616
 Three 28 (15) 158 (85) 186 [24] 1.0 0.56–1.90 0.926
 Four or more 25 (11) 205 (89) 230 [30] 0.7 0.38–1.32 0.277
Length of hospital stay, days
 Less than 5-days 64 (15) 368 (85) 432 [57] 1.0   
 Five days or more 36 (11) 294 (89) 330 [43] 0.7 0.46–1.09 0.115
HIV-serostatus
 Negative 49 (14) 291 (86) 340 [45] 1.0   
 Positive 23 (10) 209 (90) 232 [30] 0.7 0.39–1.11 0.113
 Unknown 28 (15) 162 (85) 190 [25] 1.0 0.62–1.70 0.919
Hospitalization in past 3-months
 No 75 (14) 455 (86) 532 [70] 1.0   
 Yes 25 (11) 205 (89) 230 [30] 0.7 0.46–1.20 0.227
Charlson's co-morbidity index score
 Zero 64 (16) 329 (84) 393 [52] 1.0   
 One or more 36 (10) 333 (90) 369 [48] 0.6 0.36–0.86 0.008
Antiretroviral therapy use
 No 86 (14) 549 (86) 635 [83] 1.0   
 Yes 14 (11) 113 (89) 127 [17] 0.8 0.43–1.44 0.444
Microscopy—Malaria Parasitaemia Results Available
 No 62 (62) 616 (93) 678 [89] 1.0   
 Yes 38 (38) 46 ( 7) 84 [11] 8.2 4.81–14.0  < 0.001
Major admission diagnosis
Malaria       
 No 17 ( 3) 604 (97) 621 [81] 1.0   
 Yes 83 (59) 58 (41) 141 [19] 50 28.3–91.5  < 0.001
Immunosuppressed syndrome (ISS) or HIV/AIDSe
 No 86 (14) 524 (86) 610 [80] 1.0   
 Yes 14 ( 9) 14 (91) 152 [20] 0.6 0.34–1.12 0.113
Tuberculosis (TB)
 No 92 (14) 548 (86) 640 [84] 1.0   
 Yes 8 ( 7) 114 (93) 122 [16] 0.4 0.20–0.88 0.023
Sepsis-related working diagnosis
No 81 (12) 597 (88) 678 [89] 1.0   
Yes 19 (23) 65 (77) 84 [11] 2.2 1.23–3.78 0.007
Respiratory Conditions except TB       
 No 85 (13) 547 (87) 632 [83] 1.0   
 Yes 15 (12) 115 (88) 130 [17] 0.8 0.47–1.51 0.557
Miscellaneous infections
 No 78 (12) 571 (88) 649 [85] 1.0   
 Yes 22 (19) 91 (81) 113 [15] 1.8 1.05–2.98 0.032
  1. aMedian (Interquartile Range, IQR)
  2. b% Column
  3. cOR Odds Ratio
  4. dconfidence interval
  5. eNot all HIV-positive patients had the immunosuppressed syndrome, ISS