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Fig. 1 | Malaria Journal

Fig. 1

From: Climate-proofing a malaria eradication strategy

Fig. 1

adapted from Thomson and Mason [82]; available from

Direct and indirect interactions between climate and health. Conventional disease models consider only the direct effects of climate variability and change on health outcomes (A), but the climate also affects health outcomes indirectly, through its influence on the many socioeconomic factors that combine to determine health risks through a two-way process (as population health also influences socioeconomic outcomes) (B and C). The climate cannot be considered an exogenous part of this system: socioeconomic factors are driving climate change through greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and land-surface changes (D) (

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