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Table 1 Epidemiological, clinical, and therapeutic characteristics of patients with PADH and at least one available DAT

From: Systematic analysis of direct antiglobulin test results in post-artesunate delayed haemolysis

Parameters All patients (n = 39) Patients with positive DAT (n = 17) Patients with negative DAT (n = 22) p
Age, median (IQR) 44 (24.5–51.5) 49.5 (43.2–54.7) 31 (20.5–48) 0.01
Female sex, number of patients (%) 13/39 (33.3%) 4/17 (23.5%) 9/22 (40.9%) 0.3
Born in malaria endemic countries, number of patients (%) 4/26 (15.4%) 1/10 (10%) 3/16 (18.7%) 1
Resident in malaria endemic countries, number of patients (%) 7/28 (25%) 2/11 (18.2%) 5/17 (29.4%) 0.7
P. falciparum, number of patients (%) 35/39 (89.7%) 15/17 (88.2%) 20/22 (90.9%) 1
P. falciparum + P. vivax, number of patients (%) 3/39 (7.7%) 2/17 (11.8%) 1/22 (4.5%) 0.6
P. vivax, number of patients (%) 1/39 (2.6%) 0/17 (0) 1/22 (4.5%) 1
Parasitaemia, median (IQR) 20.8% (11.2–30) 27% (21–34) 17% (9–22) 0.03
Hyperparasitaemia (> 10%), number of patients (%) 28/36 (77.8%) 14/17 (82.3%) 14/19 (73.7%) 0.7
Number of WHO severe malaria criteria [2], median (IQR) 3 (2–3) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–3) 0.6
Patients with acute kidney injury, number of patients (%) 16/35 (45.7%) 10/16 (62.5%) 6/19 (31.6%) 0.09
Parasite clearance time in days, median (IQR) 3 (2–4) 4 (3–5.5) 3 (2–4) 0.3
Intravenous artesunate, number of patients (%) 32/39 (82%) 15/17 (88.2%) 17/22 (77.3%) 0.4
Intrarectal artesunate, number of patients (%) 2/39 (5.1%) 1/17 (5.9%) 1/22 (4.5%) 1
Artesunate + oral ACT, number of patients (%) 17/37 (45.9%) 7/15 (46.7%) 10/22 (45.4%) 1
Not receiving artesunate (only other artemisinines), number of patients (%) 5/39 (12.8%) 1/17 (5.9%) 4/22 (18.2%) 0.4
Oral quinine, number of patients (%) 10/37 (27%) 6/15 (40%) 4/22 (18.2%) 0.3
Oral doxycycline, number of patients (%) 10/37 (27%) 5/15 (33.3%) 5/22 (22.7%) 0.7
Oral clindamycin, number of patients (%) 4/37 (10.8%) 0/15 (0) 4/22 (18.2%) 0.1
Days of intravenous Artesunate therapy, median (IQR) 3 (2–4) 3 (2–3.7) 3 (2.7–4) 0.8
Basal haemoglobin (Hb), median (IQR) 12.4 (10.7–13.8) 12.5 (11.2–13.2) 11.8 (10.5–14.3) 0.8
Time to PADH onset, in days, median (IQR) 12 (8.5–14) 13 (8.2–14) 11 (9–13) 0.5
Time to Hb Nadir during PADH, in days, median (IQR) 14 (11–15) 14.5 (12.2–16.7) 13 (11.2–15) 0.3
Hb level at nadir, median (IQR) 6 (5.2–6.8) 6.5 (5.4–6.9) 5.9 (4.8–6.4) 0.2
IgG DAT, number of patients (%) 5/13 (38.5%)
C3d DAT, number of patients (%) 6/13 (46.1%)
IgG/C3d DAT, number of patients (%) 2/13 (15.4%)
Patients treated with systemic corticosteroids, number of patients (%) 14/37 (37.8%) 11/16 (68.7%) 3/21 (14.3%) 0.002
Patients receiving transfusions, number of patients (%) 29/39 (74.4%) 12/17 (70.6%) 17/22 (77.3%) 0.7
Number of red blood cells units transfused, median (IQR) 2 (0–4) 2 (0–4) 3.5 (0–4) 0.5