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Table 1 Pearson’s correlations/Spearman’s rank correlations (rp/rs) between the datasets from Tabellverket (1749–1859), Bergman (1749–1820), Flensburg (1826–1890) and monthly meteorological data of the preceding year from Stockholm (1756–1890) and Uppsala (1748–1890)

From: The spatiotemporal distribution of historical malaria cases in Sweden: a climatic perspective

Dataset Tabellverket Bergman Flensburg
Stockholm 1756–1859 (104 years) Uppsala 1749–1859 (111 years) Stockholm 1756–1820 (65 years) Uppsala 1749–1820 (72 years) Stockholm 1826–1890 (65 years) Uppsala 1826–1890 (65 years)
Temperature
 Apr (– 1) − 0.06/0.06 0.00/0.11 − 0.04/− 0.07 − 0.09/− 0.09 − 0.15/− 0.06 − 0.02/0.05
 May (– 1) 0.15/0.12 0.16/0.16 0.20/0.25 0.04/0.14 0.14/0.13 0.18/0.18
 Jun (– 1) 0.27/0.20 0.24/0.21 0.48*/0.47* 0.35*/0.35* 0.30/0.30 0.37*/0.40*
 Jul (– 1) 0.15/0.25 0.16*0.31 0.46*/0.49* 0.42*/0.47* 0.37*/0.30 0.46*/0.40*
 Aug (– 1) − 0.02/0.09 0.01/0.09 0.20/0.28 0.24/0.23 0.27/0.26 0.32*/0.35*
 JJ (– 1) 0.24/*0.25 0.23/0.31* 0.53*/0.52* 0.47*/0.47* 0.40*/0.35* 0.50*/0.50*
 AMJ (– 1) 0.15/0.16 0.17/0.22 0.26/0.26 0.10/0.17 0.14/0.12 0.24/0.25
 MJJ (– 1) 0.24/0.23 0.25/0.30* 0.48*/0.50* 0.34*/0.39* 0.37*/0.32* 0.46*/0.45*
 JJA (– 1) 0.17/0.21 0.18/0.25 0.51*/0.57* 0.47*/0.47* 0.42*/0.40* 0.52*/0.54*
Precipitation
 Mar (– 1) − 0.15/− 0.15 −  0.09/− 0.27* − 0.23/−0.30 − 0.07/−  0.03 − 0.16/− 0.26 − 0.15/− 0.11
 Apr (– 1) 0.10/0.13 0.09/−0.04 0.20/0.09 0.33*/0.23 − 0.11/− 0.11 − 0.02/0.11
 May (– 1) − 0.05/0.05 0.08/0.00 − 0.06/− 0.07 0.29/0.03 − 0.07/− 0.14 − 0.05/− 0.06
 Jun (– 1) − 0.16/− 0.11 − 0.22/− 0.35* − 0.11/−0.20 − 0.25/− 0.44* −  0.20/− 0.24 − 0.16/− 0.14
 Jul (– 1) − 0.07/0.00 − 0.11/− 0.30* − 0.19/−  0.29 −  0.12/− 0.22 − 0.20/− 0.27 − 0.08− 0.03
 Aug (– 1) 0.01/−0.04 − 0.03/−  0.17 0.14/0.15 0.00/−0.12 0.07/0.03 0.10/0.08
 JJ (– 1) − 0.15/− 0.03 − 0.23/− 0.44* − 0.20/−0.26 − 0.26/− 0.45* − 0.28/− 0.37* − 0.15/− 0.14
 MAM (– 1) − 0.04/0.05 0.02/− 0.12 0.077−0.14 0.32*/0.16 − 0.19/− 0.24 − 0.13/− 0.05
 AMJ (– 1) − 0.09/0.01 − 0.05/− 0.21 0.05/− 0.03 0.14/− 0.12 − 0.25/− 0.27 − 0.14/− 0.04
 MJJ (– 1) − 0.13/0.01 − 0.15/− 0.34* − 0.11/− 0.22 − 0.10/− 0.34* − 0.28/− 0.39* − 0.14/− 0.16
 JJA (– 1) − 0.10/−  0.01 − 0.17/− 0.44* − 0.05/− 0.03 − 0.19/− 0.37* − 0.16/− 0.25 −  0.04/− 0.05
  1. Bold: p < 0.05 significant
  2. *p < 0.01 highly significant