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Table 2 Distribution of significant factors in immune versus susceptible infants

From: Determinants of the varied profiles of Plasmodium falciparum infections among infants living in Kintampo, Ghana

Characteristic Level Only-asymptomatic
n = 87
n (%)
Only-symptomatic and alternating
n = 718
n (%)
p-value
Reported fever before first infection Yes 38 (43.7) 399 (55.6) 0.035
No 49 (56.3) 319 (44.4)  
Illness before first infection Yes 34 (39.1) 434 (60.4) < 0.001
No 53 (60.9) 284 (39.6)  
Anti-malarial use before first infection Yes 3 (3.4) 343 (47.8) < 0.001
No 84 (96.6) 375 (52.2)  
Socio-economic status Least poor 20 (23.0) 68 (9.5) < 0.001
Less poor 19 (21.8) 124 (17.3)  
Poor 20 (23.0) 160 (22.3)  
Poorer 17 (19.5) 167 (23.3)  
Most poor 11 (12.6) 199 (27.7)  
IPTp, DOTs Yes 73 (90.1) 660 (95.8) 0.024
No 8 (9.9) 29 (4.2)  
Overall ITN use during pregnancy Yes 52 (61.2) 345 (48.6) 0.028
No 33 (38.8) 365 (51.4)  
ITN use during pregnancy in rural areas Yes 43 (59.7) 299 (46.6) 0.035
No 29 (40.3) 342 (53.4)  
Placental malaria overall Negative 58 (66.7) 436 (60.7) 0.010
Past 23 (26.4) 227 (31.6)  
Chronic 0 (0.0) 38 (5.3)  
Acute 6 (6.9) 17 (2.4)  
Placental malaria in rural areas Negative 51 (68.9) 398 (61.4) 0.021
Past 18 (24.3) 199 (30.7)  
Chronic 0 (0.0) 35 (5.4)  
Acute 5 (6.8) 16 (2.5)  
  1. The bold emphasis of p-values indicate significant differences in exposure variables in relation to the outcomes which were compared
  2. IPTp = intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy; DOTs = directly observed therapy; ITN = insecticide treated bed net