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Table 4 Risk of infection within the group of infants

From: Determinants of the varied profiles of Plasmodium falciparum infections among infants living in Kintampo, Ghana

Variable

Category

Only-asymptomatic infection

Only-symptomatic infection

Alternating

OR (95% CI)

p-value

*AdjustedOR (95%CI)

p-value

OR (95% CI)

p-value

*AdjustedOR (95% CI)

p-value

OR (95% CI)

p-value

*AdjustedOR (95%CI)

p-value

Residence

Rural

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Urban

0.59 (0.42–0.82)

0.001

0.81 (0.59–1.11)

0.193

0.92 (0.74–1.16)

0.499

0.95 (0.72–1.26)

0.731

0.77 (0.63–0.94)

0.011

0.76 (0.60–0.96)

0.022

ITNa usage by mother during pregnancy

Yes

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

No

0.91 (0.63–1.34)

0.645

0.91 (0.62–1.33)

0.610

1.04 (0.91–1.19)

0.540

1.00 (0.87–1.13)

0.927

0.96 (0.82–1.12)

0.612

0.93 (0.79–1.09)

0.361

Placental malaria

Negative

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Positive

1.06 (0.70–1.61)

0.789

1.01 (0.65–1.56)

0.969

1.04 (0.91–1.19)

0.540

1.03 (0.90–1.17)

0.698

0.97 (0.83–1.14)

0.724

1.06 (0.89–1.25)

0.510

SESb

Least poor

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Less poor

1.05 (0.74–1.49)

0.797

1.12 (0.78–1.61)

0.527

1.03 (0.81–1.32)

0.795

0.97 (0.75–1.24)

0.784

1.16 (0.88–1.52)

0.298

1.19 (0.91–1.56)

0.210

Poor

1.83 (1.12–2.99)

0.015

1.83 (1.09–3.05)

0.022

1.37 (1.07–1.75)

0.011

1.32 (1.03–1.70)

0.029

1.36 (1.03–1.80)

0.028

1.31 (1.01–1.71)

0.044

Poorer

1.64 (1.08–2.47)

0.019

1.64 (1.05–2.54)

0.029

1.32 (1.02–1.69)

0.032

1.22 (0.93–1.59)

0.152

1.31 (1.00–1.73)

0.052

1.31 (1.00–1.72)

0.052

Most poor

2.96 (1.64–5.37)

< 0.001

2.98 (1.67–5.34)

< 0.001

1.52 (1.19–1.94)

0.001

1.42 (1.09–1.85)

0.009

1.47 (1.13–1.91)

0.004

1.41 (1.08–1.84)

0.011

Anti-malarial use before infection

No

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

1

 

Yes

0.82 (0.54–1.24)

0.347

0.93 (0.64–1.36)

0.701

0.92 (0.80–1.05)

0.217

1.00 (0.87–1.16)

0.992

1.05 (0.88–1.25)

0.591

1.13 (0.94–1.35)

0.193

MUACc

 

0.99 (0.98–1.01)

0.273

0.98 (0.97–0.99)

0.004

0.98 (0.97–0.99)

0.005

0.98 (0.97–0.99)

< 0.001

0.98 (0.97–0.99)

< 0.001

Age of mother

 

1.03 (1.00–1.06)

0.062

1.00 (1.00–1.01)

0.363

1.01 (1.00–1.02)

0.046

1.01 (1.00–1.03)

0.047

ANCd visits

 

0.98 (0.87–1.11)

0.735

0.96 (0.93–1.00)

0.030

0.98 (0.96–1.00)

0.103

0.97 (0.93–1.01)

0.155

  1. The bold emphasis of p-values indicate significant differences in exposure variables in relation to the outcomes which were compared
  2. ITN   insecticide treated bed-net; SES  socio-economic status; MUAC  mid-upper arm circumference; ANC antenatal care
  3. *Adjusted for residence, ITN use, antimalarial usage before first infection, SES, placental malaria, and gestation