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Table 4 Risk of infection within the group of infants

From: Determinants of the varied profiles of Plasmodium falciparum infections among infants living in Kintampo, Ghana

Variable Category Only-asymptomatic infection Only-symptomatic infection Alternating
OR (95% CI) p-value *AdjustedOR (95%CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value *AdjustedOR (95% CI) p-value OR (95% CI) p-value *AdjustedOR (95%CI) p-value
Residence Rural 1   1   1   1   1   1  
Urban 0.59 (0.42–0.82) 0.001 0.81 (0.59–1.11) 0.193 0.92 (0.74–1.16) 0.499 0.95 (0.72–1.26) 0.731 0.77 (0.63–0.94) 0.011 0.76 (0.60–0.96) 0.022
ITNa usage by mother during pregnancy Yes 1   1   1   1   1   1  
No 0.91 (0.63–1.34) 0.645 0.91 (0.62–1.33) 0.610 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 0.540 1.00 (0.87–1.13) 0.927 0.96 (0.82–1.12) 0.612 0.93 (0.79–1.09) 0.361
Placental malaria Negative 1   1   1   1   1   1  
Positive 1.06 (0.70–1.61) 0.789 1.01 (0.65–1.56) 0.969 1.04 (0.91–1.19) 0.540 1.03 (0.90–1.17) 0.698 0.97 (0.83–1.14) 0.724 1.06 (0.89–1.25) 0.510
SESb Least poor 1   1   1   1   1   1  
Less poor 1.05 (0.74–1.49) 0.797 1.12 (0.78–1.61) 0.527 1.03 (0.81–1.32) 0.795 0.97 (0.75–1.24) 0.784 1.16 (0.88–1.52) 0.298 1.19 (0.91–1.56) 0.210
Poor 1.83 (1.12–2.99) 0.015 1.83 (1.09–3.05) 0.022 1.37 (1.07–1.75) 0.011 1.32 (1.03–1.70) 0.029 1.36 (1.03–1.80) 0.028 1.31 (1.01–1.71) 0.044
Poorer 1.64 (1.08–2.47) 0.019 1.64 (1.05–2.54) 0.029 1.32 (1.02–1.69) 0.032 1.22 (0.93–1.59) 0.152 1.31 (1.00–1.73) 0.052 1.31 (1.00–1.72) 0.052
Most poor 2.96 (1.64–5.37) < 0.001 2.98 (1.67–5.34) < 0.001 1.52 (1.19–1.94) 0.001 1.42 (1.09–1.85) 0.009 1.47 (1.13–1.91) 0.004 1.41 (1.08–1.84) 0.011
Anti-malarial use before infection No 1   1   1   1   1   1  
Yes 0.82 (0.54–1.24) 0.347 0.93 (0.64–1.36) 0.701 0.92 (0.80–1.05) 0.217 1.00 (0.87–1.16) 0.992 1.05 (0.88–1.25) 0.591 1.13 (0.94–1.35) 0.193
MUACc   0.99 (0.98–1.01) 0.273 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.004 0.98 (0.97–0.99) 0.005 0.98 (0.97–0.99) < 0.001 0.98 (0.97–0.99) < 0.001
Age of mother   1.03 (1.00–1.06) 0.062 1.00 (1.00–1.01) 0.363 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.046 1.01 (1.00–1.03) 0.047
ANCd visits   0.98 (0.87–1.11) 0.735 0.96 (0.93–1.00) 0.030 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.103 0.97 (0.93–1.01) 0.155
  1. The bold emphasis of p-values indicate significant differences in exposure variables in relation to the outcomes which were compared
  2. ITN   insecticide treated bed-net; SES  socio-economic status; MUAC  mid-upper arm circumference; ANC antenatal care
  3. *Adjusted for residence, ITN use, antimalarial usage before first infection, SES, placental malaria, and gestation