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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the four trial arms

From: The effect of community-driven larval source management and house improvement on malaria transmission when added to the standard malaria control strategies in Malawi: a cluster-randomized controlled trial

  Control HI LSM HI + LSM
Study cluster characteristics
 Clusters 5 4 5 4
 Villages 7 13 24 9
 Households 1056 1030 1520 952
 Population 4244 4568 6801 4400
Household characteristics
 Median altitude of houses, m (range) 90 (66, 510) 200 (85, 632) 190 (73, 569) 225 (144, 550)
 % households in the lowest socioeconomic categorya
(95% CI)
16.3 (11.1, 21.6) 19.1 (14.6, 23.6) 14.5 (10.5, 18.4) 12.6 (9.0, 16.2)
 % households with ≥ 1 long-lasting insecticidal nets
(95% CI)
35.3 (28.5, 42.1) 28.8 (23.6, 34.1) 27.3 (22.3, 32.3) 30.5 (25.5, 35.5)
Children characteristics
 Median age, months (IQR; N) 31 (20, 44; 106) 30 (19, 48; 223) 33 (21, 47; 199) 30 (18, 44; 213)
 Long-lasting insecticidal nets use (%) in children 6–59 months (95% CI) 43.4 (34.0, 52.8) 34.5 (28.3, 40.8) 29.1 (22.8, 35.5) 38.0 (31.5, 44.5)
 Malaria infection prevalence (%) in children 6–59 months (95% CI; N) 26.4 (19.0, 35.5; 106) 26.5 (21.1, 32.6; 223) 38.7 (32.2, 45.6; 199) 44.6 (38.1, 51.3; 213)
 Mean haemoglobin level in children 6–59 months, g/dL (95% CI; N) 10.9 (10.6, 11.1; 106) 10.7 (10.5, 10.9; 223) 10.2 (10.0, 10.5; 199) 10.2 (10.0, 10.4; 213)
Entomological characteristics
 Mean number of Anopheles females collected indoors per house per night (95% CI; N) 0.13 (0.07, 0.19; 150) 0.05 (0.02, 0.08; 224) 0.21 (0.15, 0.26; 252) 0.12 (0.08, 0.16; 289)
 Mean number of Anopheles females collected outdoors per house per night (95% CI; N) 0.21 (0.14, 0.28; 158) 0.06 (0.03, 0.10; 217) 0.31 (0.24, 0.38; 248) 0.21 (0.15, 0.26; 286)
 % Anopheles females with P. falciparum DNA in head/thorax (sporozoite rate)b (95% CI; N) 5.7 (1.9, 15.4; 53) 0.0 (0.0, 12.9; 26) 7.0 (3.7, 12.8; 128) 9.6 (5.1, 17.2; 94)
  1. HI house improvement, LSM larval source management
  2. aSocioeconomic categories were based on ownership of household items, using principal component analysis to determine quintiles
  3. bSporozoite rate combined for all Anopheles species, combined for indoor and outdoor sampling