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Table 3 Univariable and multivariable analysis of clinical features associated with uraemia at admission

From: Identifying prognostic factors of severe metabolic acidosis and uraemia in African children with severe falciparum malaria: a secondary analysis of a randomized trial

Variable Sample size: 5425 Univariable analysis Multivariable analysis
N (%) Acute kidney injury N(%) Odds Ratio CI 95% P-value Odds Ratio CI 95% P-value
Age (Mean: 2 years IQR:25th -75th: 1–4)    1.04 1.01–1.07 0.003 1.08 1.05—1.13  < 0.001
Gender: female (reference), male 2611 (48.1) 533 (24.1) 1.03 0.89—1.18 0.688 1 0.86—1.16 0.97
Coma (BCS <  = 2) 1823 (33.6) 436 (28.8) 1.42 1.23–1.63  < 0.001 3.18 2.36—4.27  < 0.001
Severe prostration 2974 (54.8) 574 (23.1) 0.86 0.75–0.99 0.034 1.78 1.37—2.30  < 0.001
Convulsions (> 30 min) 1692 (31.2) 293 (20.6) 0.74 0.63–0.86  < 0.001 0.83 0.68—1.02 0.075
Decompensated shock 178 (3.3) 59 (39.3) 2.07 1.48–2.89  < 0.001 1.89 1.31—2.74 0.001
Respiratory distress 867 (15.9) 198 (27.1) 1.19 0.99–1.43 0.056 1.1 0.89—1.35 0.366
Deep breathing 938 (17.3) 255 (30.9) 1.5 1.27–1.78  < 0.001 2.05 1.65—2.55  < 0.001
Black water fever (haemoglobinuria) 237 (4.4) 58 (32.0) 1.49 1.08—2.05 0.014 1.58 1.09—2.27 0.014
Severe jaundice 114 (2.1) 49 (50) 3.21 2.15– 4.79  < 0.001 3.46 2.21- 5.43  < 0.001
Anuria /Oliguria 7 (0.1) 6 (85.7) 18.75 2.25–155.9 0.007    
Hyperparasitaemia 100 (1.8) 14 (15.6) 0.57 0.32 –1.01 0.053    
Mild anaemia (< 10 −5) 2705 (55.0) 593 (23.6) 1.54 1.24- 1.91  < 0.001 1.28 1.01—1.62 0.04
severe anaemia (> 5) 1431 (29.1) 393 (29.9) 2.13 1.69–2.67  < 0.001 1.77 1.36—2.29  < 0.001
Base excess: More than -8 mmol/L (reference) 2286 (49.9) 290 (12.9)       
Severe metabolic acidosis 2296 (50.1) 800 (35.6) 3.73 3.21 – 4.33  < 0.001    
Blood Glucose: hypoglycaemia: < 3 mmol/L), No Hypoglycaemia (Reference) 557 (10.3) 223 (45.7) 3.02 2.49–3.67  < 0.001 2.77 2.22—3.46  < 0.001
  1. Severe Prostration: Not Able to breast feed < 6 m or able to sit > 6 m, Decompensated Shock: Children Systolic BP < 70mhg, Respiratory distress: costal in drawing/ recession / respiratory insufficiency, Hyperparasitaemia: > 500 parasites per high powered field