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Table 3 Association between nutritional status and malaria incidence

From: Nutritional status in young children prior to the malaria transmission season in Burkina Faso and Mali, and its impact on the incidence of clinical malaria

  No of episodes Rate per 1000 person-years Unadjusted Adjusteda Fully adjustedb Adjusted P-value
Rate ratio (95% CI) Rate ratio (95% CI) Rate ratio (95% CI)
Burkina Faso
 Height-for-age
  Normal 274 685 (608–771) 1 1 1  
 Moderately stunted 126 729 (612–868) 1.05 (0.84–1.31) 1.11 (0.89–1.39) 1.08 (0.86–1.36) 0.49
  Severely stunted 62 550 (429–706) 0.78 (0.58–1.04) 0.88 (0.65–1.18) 0.86 (0.63–1.17) 0.34
Mali
 Height-for-age
  Normal 491 1318 (1207–1440) 1 1 1  
  Moderately stunted 196 1252 (1089–1440) 0.95 (0.80–1.13) 0.94 (0.79–1.12) 0.94 (0.78–1.13) 0.53
  Severely stunted 119 1033 (863–1236) 0.78 (0.63–0.96) 0.80 (0.64–0.99) 0.81 (0.64–1.02) 0.08
Burkina Faso
 Weight-for-age
  Normal 281 654 (581–735) 1 1 1  
  Moderately underweight 114 859 (715–1032) 1.29 (1.02–1.62) 1.29 (1.02–1.63) 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 0.07
  Severely underweight 67 545 (429–692) 0.83 (0.63–1.10) 0.94 (0.71–1.25) 0.94 (0.66–1.34) 0.75
Mali
 Weight-for-age
  Normal 578 1277 (1177–1286) 1 1 1  
  Moderately underweight 165 1314 (1128–1531) 1.02 (0.85–1.23) 1.05 (0.87–1.26) 1.07 (0.88–1.32) 0.48
  Severely underweight 63 951 (743–1218) 0.74 (0.56–0.97) 0.77 (0.58–1.01) 0.82 (0.60–1.13) 0.23
Burkina Faso
 Weight-for-height/length
  Normal 353 688 (619–763) 1 1 1  
  Moderately wasted 58 674 (521–872) 0.98 (0.72–1.32) 1.04 (0.77–1.40) 1.00 (0.73–1.36) 1
  Severely wasted 58 599 (463–774) 0.88 (0.65–1.18) 0.94 (0.69–1.26) 0.91 (0.66–1.27) 0.59
Mali
 Weight-for-height/length
  Normal 714 1260 (1171–1356) 1 1 1  
  Moderately wasted 84 1376 (1111–1704) 1.02 (0.85–1.23) 1.21 (0.94–1.56) 1.27 (0.98–1.64) 0.07
  Severely wasted 49 1142 (864–1512) 0.74 (0.56–0.97) 0.96 (0.70–1.31) 1.03 (0.74–1.43) 0.85
Burkina Faso
MUAC-for-age (2016)
  Normal 417 690 (627–760) 1 1 1  
   Low MUAC-for-age 34 643 (459–899) 0.95 (0.65–1.38) 0.96 (0.66–1.40) 0.95 (0.65–1.38) 0.78
  Very low MUAC-for-age 7 636 (303–1333) 0.95 (0.43–2.11) 0.92 (0.42–2.05) 0.92 (0.41–2.04) 0.84
Mali
 MUAC-for-age (2016)
  Normal 726 1253 (1165–1348) 1 1 1  
  Low MUAC-for-age 42 1070 (791–1448) 0.86 (0.62–1.20) 0.85 (0.61–1.18) 0.88 (0.63–1.23) 0.47
  Very low MUAC-for-age 18 1929 (1216–3,062) 1.37 (0.82–2.31) 1.36 (0.81–2.29) 1.46 (0.86–2.47) 0.16
Burkina Faso
 MUAC-for-age (2015)
  Normal 4042 1490 (1445–1537) 1 1   
  Low MUAC-for-age 421 1424 (1294–1567) 0.96 (0.86–1.07) 0.95 (0.86–1.06)   0.39
  Very low MUAC-for-age 68 1437 (1133–1823) 0.97 (0.75–1.25) 1.02 (0.79–1.31)   0.88
Mali
 MUAC-for-age (2015)
  Normal 2791 1029 (992–1068) 1 1   
  Low MUAC-for-age 297 1065 (950–1193) 1.03 (0.91–1.17) 1.02 (0.90–1.16)   0.77
  Very low MUAC-for-age 91 1306 (1063–1604) 1.24 (0.99–1.55) 1.20 (0.96–1.51)   0.12
  1. aAdjustment was made for age, gender, intervention arm, calendar month, and distance to health facility
  2. bAdditional adjustment was made for AQ dose for the 2016 variables (in addition to the variables listed above). No adjustment was made for SP dose to avoid collinearity