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Table 3 Univariate and multivariable analysis of the odds ratios for Plasmodium falciparum infection among indigenous groups of Amazonas, Bolivar and Sucre states, Venezuela, 2014–2018

From: The malaria burden of Amerindian groups of three Venezuelan states: a descriptive study based on programmatic data

Occupation Pv Pf Univariate Multivariable
OR (Pf/Pv) CI   p value OR (Pf/Pv) CI   p value
Mining 7763 2656 1.44 1.35 1.54 < 0.01 1.09 1.01 1.18 0.03
Agriculture 2951 886 1.26 1.15 1.39 < 0.01 0.82 0.74 0.91 < 0.01
Commerce 8371 2873 1.45 1.35 1.55 < 0.01     
Student 8391 2257 1.13 1.06 1.21 < 0.01     
Others 7268 1726 1.00        
Age group
 5–14 23,101 5619 1.02 0.97 1.07 0.50 1.08 1.02 1.15 0.01
 15–29 28,739 8893 1.30 1.23 1.36 < 0.01 1.47 1.39 1.56 < 0.01
 30–64 21,127 7565 1.50 1.43 1.58 < 0.01 1.75 1.64 1.85 < 0.01
 65+ 1307 550 1.76 1.58 1.96 < 0.01 2.07 1.85 2.32 < 0.01
 0–4 10,424 2489 1.00        
Gender
 Female 39,443 11,876 1.03 1.00 1.06 0.03 1.04 1.01 1.08 0.01
 Male 45,681 13,325 1.00        
Ethnic group
 Pemon 22,002 6633 1.19 1.12 1.26 < 0.01 1.17 1.09 1.25 < 0.01
 Jivi 21,332 6701 1.24 1.17 1.32 < 0.01 1.29 1.22 1.37 < 0.01
 Yekuana 7804 2328 1.18 1.10 1.26 < 0.01 1.21 1.13 1.30 < 0.01
 Wotjuja 14,640 3429 0.93 0.87 0.99 0.02     
 Kurripaco 3591 812 0.89 0.82 0.98 0.02 0.87 0.79 0.96 < 0.01
 Eñepa 2335 946 1.60 1.46 1.75 < 0.01 1.76 1.59 1.94 < 0.01
 Piapoko 2500 712 1.13 1.02 1.24 0.02 1.20 1.09 1.33 < 0.01
 Yanomami 1875 1248 2.63 2.41 2.87 < 0.01 3.08 2.81 3.38 < 0.01
 Hoti 538 389 2.86 2.48 3.29 < 0.01 3.33 2.89 3.84 < 0.01
 Kubeo 25 3 0.47 0.14 1.57 0.22     
 Warao 325 48 0.58 0.43 0.79 < 0.01     
 Warekena 255 44 0.68 0.49 0.94 0.02 0.67 0.48 0.93 0.02
 Akawayo 791 108 0.54 0.44 0.66 < 0.01 0.46 0.38 0.57 < 0.01
 Other 7111 1800 1.00        
State
 Amazonas 48,894 14,452 2.92 1.93 4.41 < 0.01 2.52 1.49 4.29 < 0.01
 Bolivar 35,983 10,724 2.94 1.95 4.45 < 0.01 2.31 1.38 3.87 < 0.01
 Sucre 247 25 1.00        
  1. Pf, Plasmodium falciparum; Pv, Plasmodium vivax; OR, Odd ratios calculated via binomial logistic regression; CI, 95% confidence intervals; p values calculated via Wald’s test