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Table 3 Decomposition of the socioeconomic inequality in adequate (≥ 3) uptake of IPTp-SP among pregnant women in Nigeria, 2018

From: Decomposition of socioeconomic inequalities in the uptake of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy in Nigeria: evidence from Demographic Health Survey

Variables Marginal effect Elasticities Ck Contribution to Cn Percentage contribution (%)
Absolute Summed
Age group
 15–24 (ref)       
 25–34 0.007*** 0.009 0.017 0.000   
 35–49 0.010*** 0.012 0.007 0.000   
Marital status
 Married 0.012*** 0.031 − 0.059 − 0.001 − 0.001 − 1.90
 Others (ref)       
Level of education (women)
 No formal education (ref)       
 Primary − 0.017*** − 0.009 − 0.096 0.001   
 Secondary − 0.015*** − 0.023 0.197 − 0.003   
 Tertiary − 0.021*** − 0.009 0.459 − 0.003   
Level of education (husband)
 No formal education (ref)       
 Primary 0.003*** 0.002 − 0.097 0.000   
 Secondary 0.052** 0.067 0.173 0.008   
 Tertiary 0.054** 0.033 0.395 0.010 0.018 20.01
Wealth index of households
 Poorest (ref)       
 Poorer − 0.075* − 0.056 − 0.437 0.018   
 Middle − 0.091* − 0.068 − 0.437 0.022   
 Richer − 0.078* − 0.064 0.563 − 0.026   
 Richest − 0.083* − 0.070 0.563 − 0.029 − 0.016 − 25.90
Employment status
 Unemployed (ref)       
 Employed − 0.015*** − 0.038 0.018 − 0.001 − 0.001 − 0.84
Religion
 Christian (ref)       
 Muslim 0.035*** 0.072 − 0.129 − 0.007   
 Others − 0.139 − 0.003 − 0.147 0.000 − 0.006 − 10.57
Place of residence
 Urban − 0.024*** − 0.042 0.282 − 0.009 − 0.009 − 14.28
 Rural (ref)       
Geopolitical zone
 North-Central (ref)       
 North-East − 0.073* − 0.045 − 0.235 0.008   
 North-West − 0.091* − 0.102 − 0.206 0.016   
 South-East 0.249 0.113 0.180 0.015   
 South-South 0.070* 0.031 0.228 0.005   
 South-West − 0.014*** − 0.009 0.351 − 0.002 0.041 67.38
 Distance to health facility (big problem) − 0.029** − 0.029 − 0.175 0.004 0.004 6.17
 Permission for self-medical help (big problem) 0.005*** 0.002 − 0.106 0.000 0.000 − 0.31
 Number of ANC visits (≥ 4 times) 0.068* 0.151 0.148 0.016 0.016 26.92
 Sum      0.041 66.67
 Residual      0.020 33.33
 Total Cn      0.061 100.00
  1. The percentage of contributions was calculated by dividing the specific “summed” contribution by the absolute values of Cn and multiplying by 100. The sum of all the percentage contributions should add up to 100 percent. The value 0.00 is not zero but due to rounding; Marginal effects were calculated at the means of the predictor variables
  2. IPTp-SP intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy with sulfadoxine–pyrimethamine, ANC antenatal care
  3. *** p < 0.01, ** p < 0.05, * p < 0.1