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Table 2 In vivo antimalarial activity of African medicinal plants

From: Antiplasmodial, antimalarial activities and toxicity of African medicinal plants: a systematic review of literature

Plant species Plant family Source Country of study Part of plant used Extraction solvent Antimalarial activity Parasite suppression rate Strain of Plasmodium tested Toxicity (value; assay)
Acacia nilotica Fabaceae [132] Nigeria Roots Water Moderate 79.5% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
[133] Nigeria Roots Methanol Very good 62.59% at 150 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
Adansonia digitata Malvaceae [134] Nigeria Stem barks Methanol Moderatea 90.18% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
[135] Kenya Stem barks Ethanol Very good  > 60% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
[135] Kenya Stem barks Water Very good 60.47% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Ageratum conyzoides Asteraceae [136] Nigeria Leaves Water Moderate 89.87% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 Nd
Albizia gummifera Fabaceae [137] Kenya Root barks Methanol Very gooda 72.9% at 20 mg/kg.day Plasmodium falciparum NF54 and ENT36 Nd
Allophylus africanus Sapindaceae [138] Nigeria Stems, roots Ns Very good 92.82–97.81 at 50 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK-65 Nd
Aloe pulcherrima Xanthorrhoeaceae [139] Ethiopia Leaves Methanol Gooda 56.2 at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Anthocleista djalonensis Gentianaceae [140] Nigeria Roots Chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol Moderate 64.81–87.66% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium beghei ANKA No
[140] Nigeria Roots Ethanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol Moderate 67.92% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Artemisia macivarae Asteraceae [141] Nigeria Whole plant Chloroform Very good 80% at 100 mg/kg Plasmodium berghei Nd
Aspilia africana Asteraceae [142] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Moderate 92.23% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berhhei NK65 No
Azadirachta indica Meliaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Good 83.48% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 No
[144] Cameroon Leaves Ethanol Moderate 69.28% at 300 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
[145] Nigeria Leaves Methanol Very good 56 – 87% at 50 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Balanites rotundifolia Zygophyllaceae [146] Ethiopia Leaves Methanol Moderate 67% at 400 mg/dl Plasmodium berghei No
Blighia sapida Sapindaceae [147] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Good 57% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Bombax buonopozense Malvaceae [148] Nigeria Root barks Water Good 93% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 Nd
Brassica nigra Brassicaceae [149] Ethiopia Seeds Methanol Moderate 53.13% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Calpurnia aurea Fabaceae [150] Ethiopia Leaves Hydroalcohol Very good 51.15% at 60 mg/kg Plasmodium berghei No
Carica papaya Caricaceae [151] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Good 59.29% at 200 mg/kg Plasmodim berghei NK65 Nd
Senna occidentalis Fabaceae [152] D.R. Congo Root barks Ethanol Good 68% at 200 mg/kg Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Cassia sieberiana Fabaceae [153] Nigeria Stems Ethanol Good 63.9% at 300 g/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
Cassia singueana Fabaceae [154] Nigeria Root barks Methanol Good 79.06% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Yes (LD50 = 847 mg/kg; mice)
Chrozophora senegalensis Euphorbiaceae [155] Nigeria Whole plant Methanol Very good 51.8% at 75 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Chrysophyllum albidum Sapotaceae [156] Nigeria Seeds, pulp juice Ethanol Moderate 72.97% at 500 mg/kg Plasmodium berghei No
Clausena anisota Rutaceae [157] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Very good 82.02% at 78 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Yes (LD50 = 393.7 mg/kg; albino mice)
Combretum molle Combretaceae [158] Ethiopia Seeds Methanol Good 63.5% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Commiphora africana Burseraceae [159] Tanzania Stem barks Dichloromethane Moderate 64.24% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum (D6, Dd2), Plasmodium berghei No
Crossopteryx febrifuga Rubiaceae [160] Nigeria Stem barks Ethanol Good 63.65% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei var. ANKA Nd
Croton macrostachyus Euphorbiaceae [161] Kenya Stem barks Ethyl acetate Moderate 82% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Cryptolepis sanguinolenta Apocynaceae [162] Congo Root barks Ethanol Moderate 75.07% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei berghei Nd
[84] Ghana Roots Hexane, ethanol, dichloromethane Very good*  > 80% at 2.5 mg/kg/day Plasmodium vinckei petteri, Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Cucumis metuliferus Cucurbitaceae [163] Tanzania Leaves Chloroform Moderate 70.69% at 600 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Dichrostachys cinerea Fabaceae [159] Tanzania Stem barks Methanol Moderate 53.12% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum (D6, Dd2), Plasmodium berghei No
Dodonaea angustifolia Sapindaceae [164] Ethiopia Roots N-butanol Moderate 55.8% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Enantia chlorantha Oliv Annonaceae [165] Nigeria Stem barks Ethanol Moderate 75.23% at 500 mg/kg Plasmodium berghei NK-65 Nd
Erigeron floribundus Asteraceae [144] Cameroon Whole plant Ethanol Good 62.4% at 240 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
Euphorbia cordifolia Euphorbiaceae [166] Cameroon Whole plant Aqueous Very good 94.70% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Euphorbia hirta L Euphorbiaceae [162] Congo Whole plant Ethanol Moderate 69.44% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei berghei Nd
Faidherbia albida Fabaceae [167] Nigeria Stem barks Ethanol Moderate 89.5 at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 Nd
Grewia plagiophylla Malvaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate 77.9 at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 Nd
Grewia trichocarpa Malvaceae [168] Kenya Root Water Good 35.8% at 10 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Yes (LD50 = 545.8 µg/ml; brine shrimp)
Garcinia kola Clusiaceae [169] Nigeria Seeds Petroleum ether Very good* 93% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Hippocratea africana Celastraceae [170] Nigeria Nd Ethanol Moderate 90.9% at 600 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei berghei Yes (LD50 = 2449 mg/kg; mice)
Hoslundia opposita Lamiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate 79.67% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 Yes (CC50 = 37 µg/ml; Vero E6 cells)
Icacina senegalensis Icacinaceae [171] Nigeria Leaves Methanol Very good 80% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Yes (LD50 > 2000 mg/kg; mice)
Indigofera spicata Fabaceae [172] Ethiopia Roots Methanol Moderate 53.42% at 600 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Lannea schweinfurthii Anacardiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate 83.48% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 Yes (CC50 = 76 µg/ml; Vero E6 cells)
Lippia kituiensis Verbenaceae [163] Tanzania Leaves Ethyl acetate Moderate 70.14% at 600 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Lophira lanceolata Ochnaceae [173] Nigeria Leaves Methanol Moderate 80% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Maerua crassifolia Capparaceae [174] Nigeria Leaves Methanol Moderate 86% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
Maytenus senegalensis Celastraceae [175] Tanzania Root barks Ethanol Very good 98.1% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Morinda morindoides Rubiaceae [152] D.R. Congo Leaves Dichloromethane Good 74% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Mucuna pruriens Fabaceae [176] Nigeria Leaves Water Good 71.75% at 270 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
Nauclea latifolia Rubiaceae [177] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Moderate 60.63% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
[165] Nigeria Roots Ethanol Moderate 71.15% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK-65 Nd
Oldenlandia affinis Rubiaceae [178] Nigeria Aerial parts Methanol, water, dichloromethane Moderate 75% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Peschiera fuchsiaefolia Apocynaceae [179] Madagascar Stem barks Ns Good* 43.4% at 10 mg/kg/day Plasmodium yoelii N67, Plasmodium falciparum FMC29 Nd
Phyllanthus amarus Phyllanthaceae [180] Nigeria Whole plant Water and ethanol Good 79% at 1600 mg/kg/day Plasmodium yoelii Nd
Phyllanthus niruri Phyllanthaceae [152] D.R. Congo Whole plant Ethanol Good 73% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
[181] Nigeria Aerial parts Methanol/chloroform Very good 90.48% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei berghei NK 65 Nd
Phytolacca dodecandra Phytolaccaceae [182] Ethiopia Leaves Methanol Moderate 55.24% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Picralima nitida Apocynaceae [183] Nigeria Seeds Ethanol Good 73% at 115 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei berghei Yes (LD50 = 87.29 µg/ml; albino mice)
Piliostigma thonningii Fabaceae [184] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Moderate 91% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK65 No
Premna chrysoclada Lamiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Good 65.08% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 Nd
Pseudocedrela kotschyi Meliaceae [185] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Moderate 90% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei (NK65 No,
Rhus natalensis Anacardiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate 82.7% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 Nd
Salacia nitida Celastraceae [165] Nigeria Roots Ethanol Moderate 71.15% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK-65 Nd
Stachytarpheta cayennensis Verbenaceae [186] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Good 78.2% at 270 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei berghei Yes (LD50 = 938.08 mg/kg; albino mice)
Telfairia occidentalis Cucurbitaceae [187] Nigeria Leaves Water Good 72.17% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Tithonia diversifolia Asteraceae [160] Nigeria Aerial parts Ethanol Good 74.97% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei var. ANKA I Nd
Toddalia asiatica Rutaceae [188] Kenya Root barks Methanol Moderate 59.3% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK66 Nd
Trema orientalis Cannabaceae [189] Nigeria Stem barks Methanol Good 70% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Trichilia megalantha Meliaceae [190] Nigeria Stem barks Methanol, chloroform Good 89.1–100% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei berghei ANKA Nd
Triphyophyllum peltatum Dioncophyllaceae [191] Ivory Coast Roots, stem barks Dichloromethane Very good* 99% at 50 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA CRS Nd
Uvaria acuminata Annonaceae [143] Kenya Roots Methanol Good 27.0% at 250 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 Nd
Uvaria chamae P. Beauv Annonaceae [170] Nigeria Nd Ethanol Moderate 72.2% at 600 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei berghei Yes (LD50 = 3464 mg/kg; mice)
Verbena hastata Verbenaceae [192] Nigeria Leaves Ethanol Moderate 70% at 400 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Vernonia amygdalina Asteraceae [193] Uganda Leaves Water Good 73% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
[194] Nigeria Leaves Water Good 50.78—62.66% at 125 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
[195] Botswana Leaves and root barks Ethanol Moderate 67% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Vernonia lasiopus Asteraceae [188] Kenya Root barks Methanol Moderate 59.3% at 500 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei NK67 Nd
Withania somnifera Solanaceae [196] Ethiopia Leaves Methanol Moderate 57% at 300 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei ANKA Nd
Xylopia aethiopica Annonaceae [141] Nigeria Fruits Chloroform Very good 60% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Artemisia abyssinica Asteraceae [197] Ethiopia Aerial parts Hydroalcohol Good 64.7% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei Nd
Rotheca myricoides Lamiaceae [198] Ethiopia Leaves Methanol Good 54.14% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Dodonaea angustifolia Sapindaceae [198] Ethiopia Roots Methanol Good 57.74% at 200 mg/kg/day Plasmodium berghei No
Clutia abyssinica Peraceae [199] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate 40.45% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum, Plasmodium berghei ANKA No
Pittosporum viridiflorum Pittosporaceae [199] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate 54.77% at 100 mg/kg/day Plasmodium falciparum D6 &W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA Yes (SI = 2.51; Vero E6 cells)
  1. Nd Not done, Ns Not specified, SI Selectivity index
  2. aActivity determined using pure compounds isolated from plant