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Table 3 In vitro and in vivo studies on African medicinal plants

From: Antiplasmodial, antimalarial activities and toxicity of African medicinal plants: a systematic review of literature

Plant species Plant family Source Country of study Part of plant used Extraction solvent Overall activity In vitro In vivo IC50 or ED50 or LD50 Strain of Plasmodium tested parasite suppression rate Toxicity (value; assay)
Sphaeranthus suaveolens Compositae [199] Kenya Whole plant Methanol Moderate Moderate In active 7.93–56.73 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 46.74% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Abutilon grandiflorum Malvaceae [200] Tanzania Roots Ethyl acetate Good Moderate Very good 9–14 µg/mL IC50 Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FCB, Plasmodium vinckei vinckei 83–87% at 20 ug/ml/day Yes (IC50 = 36 µg/ml; human colon carcinoma cell line [HT29])
Alchornea laxiflora Euphorbiaceae [131] Nigeria Roots Ethyl acetate, dichloromethane Good Inactive Very good 38.44—40.17 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum 3Dè, INDO, Plasmodium berghei 65.73% at 150 mg/kg/day Yes (LD50 = 748.33 mg/kg; HeLa cells)
Annona senegalensis Annonaceae [201] Nigeria Leaves Methanol Moderate In active Very good 28.8 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium berghei  > 57% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Boscia angustifolia Capparaceae [199] Kenya Stem barks Methanol Moderate Moderate Very good 7.43–35.93 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 &W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 60.12% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Chrozophora senegalensis Euphorbiaceae [64] Senegal Leaves Water Very good Very good Very good 1.6–1.9 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum FcM29, FcB1, Plasmodium vinckei petteri 65% at 10 mg/kg/day No
Clerodendrum eriophyllum Lamiaceae [199] Kenya Root barks Methanol Moderate Good Very good 9.51–10.56 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 & W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 90.13% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Cocos nucifera Arecaceae [202] Nigeria Husk Ethyl acetate Moderate Moderate Very good 10.94 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum W2, Plasmodium berghei NK65 98.6% at 125 mg/kg/day Nd
Commiphora africana Burseraceae [159] Tanzania Stem barks Dichloromethane Moderate Very good Moderate 4.54 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6, Dd2, Plasmodium berghei 64.24% at 400 mg/kg/day No
Ficus thonningii Moraceae [203] Nigeria Whole plant Hexane Moderate Good Moderate 2.7–10.4 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum NF54, K1, Plasmodium berghei NK65 84.5% at 500 mg/kg/day No
Flueggea virosa Phyllanthaceae [199] Kenya Leaves Methanol Very good Very good Very good 2.28–3.64 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 70.91% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Fuerstia africana Lamiaceae [199] Kenya Whole plant Methanol Very good Very good Very good 0.98–2.40 µg//ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 61.85% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Harungana madagascariensis Hypericaceae [199] Kenya Leaves Water Moderate Inactive Very good 39.07–43.7 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 88.04% at 100 mg/kg/day No
[204] Nigeria Stem barks Ethanol Very good Very good Inactive 0.052—0.517 μg/ml IC50 Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis N67, Plasmodium falciparum 28.6–44.8% Nd
Lannea schweinfurthii Anacardiaceae [205] Kenya Stem barks Methanol Moderate Moderate Very good 11.38–36.26 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6, W2, Plasmodium berghei 91.37% at 100 mg/kg/day Yes (SI = 6.21–19.79; Vero cells)
Lophira alata Ochnaceae [203] Nigeria Whole plant Hexane Good Very good Moderate 2.5 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum NF54, K1, Plasmodium berghei NK65 74.45% at 500 mg/kg/day No
Ludwigia erecta Onagraceae [199] Kenya Whole plant Water Very good Very good In active 0.93–1.61 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 & W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 49.64% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Maytenus putterlickioides Celastraceae [199] Kenya Root barks Methanol Good Good Very good 4.41–10.26 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 78.66% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Maytenus undata Celastraceae [199] Kenya Leaves Methanol Good Good Very good 7.4–9.89 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 76.29% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Mimusops caffra Sapotaceae [206] South Africa Leaves Dichloromethane Good Very good Moderate 2.14 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D10, Plasmodium berghei 94.01% at 400 mg/kg/day Nd
Schkuhria pinnata Compositae [199] Kenya Whole plant Methanol Good Good In actice 1.3–6.83 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 & W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 49.9% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Sclerocarya birrea Anacardiaceae [205] Kenya Stem barks Methanol Moderate Moderate Very good 5.91–24.96 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6, W2, Plasmodium berghei 63.49% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Toddalia asiatica Rutaceae [117] Kenya Fruits Ethyl acetate Very good Very good Moderate 1.87 μg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum W2 & D6, Plasmodium berghei 81.34% at 500 mg/kg/day No
Turraea robusta Meliaceae [205] Kenya Root barks Methanol Good Good Very good 2.09–10.32 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6, W2, Plasmodium berghei 78.2% at 100 mg/kg/day Yes (SI = 2.36–11.67; Vero cells)
Uapaca nitida Phyllanthaceae [207] Tanzania Root barks Ethanol Moderate* Inactive Inactive 19.6—25.9 µg/mL IC50 Plasmodium falciparum K1, T9-96 & Plasmodium berghei poor No
Vernonia ambigua Asteraceae [208] Nigeria Ns Water Very good Inactive Very good 31.26–50 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium berghei, Plasmodium falciparum 60% at 100 mg/kg/day No
[209] Republic of Congo Leaves Methanol Moderate Very good Moderate 3.58 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum. Plasmodium yoelii 61.28% at 500 mg/kg/day No
Warburgia stuhlmannii Camellaceae [199] Kenya Stem barks Water Very good Very good Very good 1.81–2.33 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2, Plasmodium berghei ANKA 84.95% at 100 mg/kg/day No
Azadirachta indica Meliaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Good Good Good 6.24–7.53 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 83.48% at 250 mg/kg/day No
Dichrostachys cinerea Fabaceae [159] Tanzania Stem barks Methanol Moderate Good Moderate 2.37–11.92 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6, Dd2, Plasmodium berghei 53.12% at 400 mg/kg/day No
Grewia plagiophylla Malvaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate Moderate Good 13.28–34.2 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 77.9% at 250 mg/kg/day Nd
Hoslundia opposita Lamiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate Good Good 12.8–13.22 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 79.67% at 250 mg/kg/day Yes (SI = 0.58; Vero E6 cells)
Lannea schweinfurthii Anacardiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate Inactive Good 38.87–54.15 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 83.48% at 250 mg/kg/day Yes (SI = 1.4; Vero E6 cells)
Premna chrysoclada Lamiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Good Good Good 7.75–9.02 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 65.08% at 250 mg/kg/day Nd
Rhus natalensis Anacardiaceae [143] Kenya Leaves Methanol Moderate Inactive Good 43.93–51.2 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 82.7% at 250 mg/kg/day Nd
Triphyophyllum peltatum Dioncophyllaceae [191] Ivory coast Roots, stem barks Dichloromethane Very good* Very good Very good 1.90 mg/kg for Dioncophylline C and 10.71 mg/kg for dioncophylline A Plasmodium berghei ANKA CRS 99% at 50 mg/kg/day Nd
Uvaria acuminata Annonaceae [143] Kenya Roots Methanol Good Good In active 6.90–8.89 µg/ml IC50 Plasmodium falciparum D6 and W2 27.0% at 250 mg/kg/day Nd
  1. Nd Not done, Ns Not specified, SI Selectivity index
  2. aActivity determined using pure compounds isolated from plant